Ch 32 GI and pancreatic systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 32 GI and pancreatic systems Deck (88):
1

GI consists of

Oral cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Sm and lg intestine (colon)

2

Most absorption of nutrients take place

Sm intestine

3

Most water reabsorption takes place

Lg intestine

4

Indigestible material (cellulose) eliminated from

Lg intestine

5

3 parts of the salivary gland

Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual glands

6

Salivary glands ducts

Carry saliva to the oral cavity

7

Amylase

Digestive enzyme in the saliva

8

Function of amylase

Digests starch to maltose

9

Lingual lipase

Activated by acidic pH in the stomach

10

Tongue made of skeletal muscle inner acted by

Cranial nerve XII
Hypoglossal

11

Taste buds inner acted by

7,9th cranial nerves

12

Function of uvula

Closes nasopharynx while the epiglottis closes the opening of the larynx

13

Stomach location

Upper left quadrant, left of liver, front of spleen

14

Parts of the stomach

Fundus
Pylorus
Pyloric sphincter

15

Gastric juice

Water
Mucus
Pepsinogen
Hydrochloric acid
Gastric lipase
Intrinsic factor

16

Mucus forms what

Bolus

17

Pepsinogen

Enzyme that activates to pepsin by hydrochloride acid.
Begins the digestion of proteins to polypeptides
Hydrochloride acid creates the pH of 1-2 that is necessary to kill most microorganisms that enter the stomach.
Breaks down proteins

18

Gastric juices are secreted at...

Site or smell of food

19

Presence of food in the stomach

Stimulates the secretion of gastrin

20

Gastrin increases

Secretion of gastric juices

21

Stomach has 3 layers of the smooth muscle

Circular
Longitudinal
Oblique

22

Changes food to

Chyme

23

How long is the small intestine?

1 inch in diameter
20 ft long

24

Sm intestines extend from

Stomach to the cecum to the colon

25

Duodenum

10inches
Hepatopancreatic ampulla--entrance of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct and pancreatic bile duct

26

Jejunum

8ft long

27

Ilium

11 ft long

28

Digestion is completed...

Sm intestine
End products absorbed into blood and lymph
Bile and enzymes function in the sm intestines
Chyme enters the duodenum, intestinal mucosa produces enzymes: sucrase, maltase, lactase (disaccharides) to monosaccharides

Peptidases complete the digestion of proteins to amino acids
Nucleosidases and phosphatases completing nucleotide digestion

29

Lg intestine

5 ft long
Ilium of sm intestine to the anus
Stores and eliminates indigestible material
Absorbs water, minerals, and vitamins

30

Elimination

Defecation reflux
Spinal cord reflex

31

Liver, bladder, pancreas

Accessory organs
Produce or store digestive secretions

32

Liver location

Right side
Center of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm
Right lobe larger than left

33

Blood supply to the liver

Oxygenated blood

34

Hepatic portal circulation

Regulates blood levels of nutrients or to remove toxic substances from the blood.

35

Functions of the liver

Production of bile and hepatocytes

36

Liver functions

Synthesis of specific enzymes

37

Carbohydrate metabolism

Regulates blood glucose levels by storing glucose as glycogen and changing glycogen back to glucose when glucose level is too low.

Also changes other monosaccharides fructose and galactose to
Glucose

38

Amino acid metabolism

Regulates blood levels of amino acids based on tissue needs for protein synthesis
12 amino acids--nonessential amino acids
8amino acids which liver can't synthesize are essential amino acids
Amino groups convert to urea and excreted through urine

39

Lipid metabolism

Forms lipo proteins in the blood

40

Synthesis of plasma proteins

Synthesizes albumin, clotting factors, globulins

41

Albumin

Most abundant plasma protein
Helps maintain. Blood volume
ProThrombin fibrinogen circulate the blood until needed for clotting

42

Amino acid undergo a process in the liver

Amino group is removed and the remaining carbon chain is converted to urea

43

Synthesis of plasma proteins

Synthesizes albumin, clotting factors and globulins

44

Synthesis of plasma protein

Albumin maintains blood volume by pulling tissue fluid into capillaries

45

Clotting factors during plasma protein synthesi

Clotting factors produced by the liver include thrombin and fibrinogen.
Circulates in blood until needed for chemical clotting

46

Globulin during plasma protein synthesis

Carriers for other molecules in the blood

47

Phagocytosis of the Kupffer cells

Phagotyze worn erythrocytes, leukocytes, and some bacteria that circulate through the liver.
Many bacteria enter through the colon after being absorbed through the water

48

Portal circulation

Brings blood to the liver before entering circulation through the body

49

Bilirubin

Hepatocytes form bilirubin from the heme portion of the hemoglobin removed from worn erythrocytes.

Liver removes bilirubin from the blood collected from the speen and red bone marrow and excretes it into bile to be eliminated in feces

50

Liver storage

Liver stores minerals iron and copper
Vitamins A D E K
Water soluble B12

51

Detoxification

Synthesizes enzymes that alter harmful substances to less harmful ones

Converts ammonia from protein metabolism to urea

52

Gall bladder

Under surface of the liver

53

Bile in the common hepatic duct

Flows through the cystic duct and into the gallbladder until it is needed in the sm intestine

Concentrates bile by absorbing water

54

Fatty foods enter the duodenum

Duodenal mucosa cholecystokinin

55

Cholecystokinin

Stimulates contraction in the smooth muscle wall of the gallbladder
Contractions forces bile into the cystic duct, into the common bile duct, empties into the duodenum.

56

Pancrease

Posterior to the greater curvature of he stomach.
Digestive secretions are produced by the exocrine glands called acini

57

Acini

Digestive secretions produced by exocrine glands

58

Pancreatic digestive enzymes are involved in the digestion of the four organic molecule categories

Amylase
Pancreatic lipase
Monoglycerides
Trypsinogen

59

Trypsinogen

Inactive enzyme changed to active trypsin in the duodenum
Digests polypeptides to shorter chains of amino acids

60

Pancreatic juice contains the following protolytic enzymes

Chymotrypsin
Carboxypeptides
Elastase

Ribonuclease & deoxyribonuclease for digestion of RNA and DNA

61

Pancreas also has bicarbonate juice which contains

Alkaline

62

Function of bicarbonate juice

Neutralize hydrochloride acid in gastric juice

63

C. Diff

Risk factor with hospitalization or use of antibiotics
Use of probiotics can reduce the risk of C. Diff

64

BMI

Calculated by height in inches x height
Divide by eight in lbs. by step 1 answer
Multiply step 2 answer by 703

18.5-24.9 is normal

65

Inspection of the abdomen

Supine position
Arms to side
Asculate URQ then clock wise
Clicks or gurgles heard (bowel sounds)

66

Hyperactive bowel sounds

High pitched
Rapid
Loud

67

Hypoactive bowel sounds

Infrequent
Paralytic ileus or following abdominal bowel surgery

68

Absent bowel sounds

Nothing heard in all quadrants for 2-5 minutes

69

Bowel obstruction sounds

High pitched tinkling that is proximal to obstruction
Abnormal or absent distal to the obstruction
Report abnormal or absent sounds to physician

70

Vascular sounds or Brits

Swooshing sounds
Heard over the aorta
Pts with chronic liver failure have a humming sound over the liver

71

Percussion

Performed by advanced nurse or physician

72

Palpating

Depress abdomin 0.5-1.0 inch
Use finger pads

73

Ascites

Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

74

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen

Monitor GI cancer treatments
Found in patients with cirrhosis
Hepatic disease
Alcoholic pancreatitis

75

Enzymes released by damaged liver cells

ALT--alanine aminotransferase
AST--asparate aminotransfase
LDH--lactic dehydrogenase

Elevations in these blood levels in absence of unknown trauma or heart attack indicate liver damage.

76

Occult blood stool test

Blood not seen by naked eye

77

UGI

Uppergastrointestinal series

78

Angiography

Symptoms of arterial occlusive disease of the hepatic, biliary and pancreatic vessels

Used to evaluate neoplasms in the organs

79

Liver scan

Inject a radioactive medium that is taken up by the liver
Instruments passes over liver that records the amt of material taken up from the liver

80

Endoscopy

Tube and fiber optic system or a tiny capsule for observing the inside of hollow organ or cavity

81

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

Visualizes the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

82

Retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas

83

Proctosigmoidoscopy

Distal sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal

84

Colonoscopy

Lining of the lg intestine

85

Gastric analysis

Measures the secretions of the stomach

Diagnosis of duodenal ulcer
Gastric carcinoma
Pyloric or duodenal obstruction

86

Gastric acid stimulation test
Basal cell test

Presence of cancer cells

87

Orgastric tube

GI tube inserted orally into the stomach

88

Gastrointestinal decompression

Necessary if stomach or sm intestine is filled with air or fluid
Distention
Feeling of fullness
Pain in abdomin

Prevention:turning pt or ambulation