Ch. 34 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 34 Deck (33):
1

Chordates are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as ________.

Deuterostomia.

2

Chordates comprise all vertebrates and 2 groups of invertebrates:

Urochordates and Cephalochordates.

3

4 Key characters of chordates:

1. Notochord
2. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord
3. Pharyngeal slits or cleft
4. Muscular, post-anal tail

4

The __________ is a longitudinal, flexible rod between the digestive tube and nerve chord.

Notochord.

5

The ________ develops into the Central Nervous System: the brain and the spinal chord.

Nerve Chord.

6

Functions of the pharyngeal slits (3):

-Suspension-feeding structures in many invertebrate chordates
-gas exchange in vertebrates (except vertebrates with limbs, the tetrapods)
-Develop into parts of the ear, and neck in tetrapods

7

________ (Urochordata) are more closely related to other chordates than are lancelets.

Tunicates.

8

________ share some characteristics: a skull, a brain, eyes and other sensory organs.

Craniates.

9

One feature unique to craniates is the _________, a collection of cells near the dorsal--these give rise to a variety of structures, including some of the bones and cartilage of the skull.

Neural Crest.

10

_______ were the first vertebrates with mineralized skeletal elements in their mouth and pharynx.

Conodonts.

11

_______ are vertebrates that have jaws; include: sharks, ray-finned fishes, lobe-finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Gnathostomes.

12

In aquatic gnathostomes, the ________, which is sensitive to vibrations is present.

Lateral Line System.

13

The earliest gnathostomes in the fossil record are an extinct lineage of armored vertebrates called ________.

Placoderms.

14

Group of jawed vertebrates that radiated during the Silurian and Devonian periods (444 to 359 MYA)?

Acanthodians.

15

__________ (sharks, rays, relatives) have a skeleton composed primarily of cartilage.

Chondrichthyans.

16

________: eggs that hatch outside the mother's body.

Oviparous.

17

________: The embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished in the egg yolk.

Ovoviviparous.

18

_______: The embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac placenta from the mother's blood.

Viviparous.

19

Nearly all living _______ have bony endoskeleton; include bony fish and tetrapods.

Osteichthyans.

20

Most fishes breathe by drawing water over gills protected by an ________.

Operculum.

21

Fish control their buoyancy with an air sac known as a ___________.

Swim Bladder.

22

The ______ (Sarcopterygii) have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins.

Lobe-Fins

23

Tetrapods have specific adaptations (5):

-4 limbs and feet w/ digits
-Neck, which allows separate movement of the head
-Fusion of the pelvic girdle to the backbone
-The absence of gills
-Ears for detecting airborne sounds

24

________ are a group of tetrapods whose living members are the reptiles, including birds and mammals.

Amniotes.

25

Most reptiles are _______, absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat.

Ectothermic.

26

Birds are _________, capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism.

Endothermic.

27

Birds descended from the group, _______, whom were bipedal carnivores.

Theropods.

28

______ are amniotes that have hair and produce milk.

Mammals.

29

Mammals have (5):

-Mammary glands, which produce milk
-Hair
-A higher metabolic rate, due to endothermy
-A larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size
-Differentiated teeth

30

Mammals evolved from ________.

Synapsids.

31

________ are a small group of egg-laying mammals consisting of echidnas and the platypus.

Monotremes.

32

________ include opossums, kangaroos, and koalas.

Marsupials.

33

The embryo develops within a ________ in the mother's uterus.

Placenta.