Flashcards in Ch. 34 Deck (33):
Chordates are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as ________.
Chordates comprise all vertebrates and 2 groups of invertebrates:
Urochordates and Cephalochordates.
4 Key characters of chordates:
2. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord
3. Pharyngeal slits or cleft
4. Muscular, post-anal tail
The __________ is a longitudinal, flexible rod between the digestive tube and nerve chord.
The ________ develops into the Central Nervous System: the brain and the spinal chord.
Functions of the pharyngeal slits (3):
-Suspension-feeding structures in many invertebrate chordates
-gas exchange in vertebrates (except vertebrates with limbs, the tetrapods)
-Develop into parts of the ear, and neck in tetrapods
________ (Urochordata) are more closely related to other chordates than are lancelets.
________ share some characteristics: a skull, a brain, eyes and other sensory organs.
One feature unique to craniates is the _________, a collection of cells near the dorsal--these give rise to a variety of structures, including some of the bones and cartilage of the skull.
_______ were the first vertebrates with mineralized skeletal elements in their mouth and pharynx.
_______ are vertebrates that have jaws; include: sharks, ray-finned fishes, lobe-finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
In aquatic gnathostomes, the ________, which is sensitive to vibrations is present.
Lateral Line System.
The earliest gnathostomes in the fossil record are an extinct lineage of armored vertebrates called ________.
Group of jawed vertebrates that radiated during the Silurian and Devonian periods (444 to 359 MYA)?
__________ (sharks, rays, relatives) have a skeleton composed primarily of cartilage.
________: eggs that hatch outside the mother's body.
________: The embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished in the egg yolk.
_______: The embryo develops within the uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac placenta from the mother's blood.
Nearly all living _______ have bony endoskeleton; include bony fish and tetrapods.
Most fishes breathe by drawing water over gills protected by an ________.
Fish control their buoyancy with an air sac known as a ___________.
The ______ (Sarcopterygii) have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins.
Tetrapods have specific adaptations (5):
-4 limbs and feet w/ digits
-Neck, which allows separate movement of the head
-Fusion of the pelvic girdle to the backbone
-The absence of gills
-Ears for detecting airborne sounds
________ are a group of tetrapods whose living members are the reptiles, including birds and mammals.
Most reptiles are _______, absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat.
Birds are _________, capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism.
Birds descended from the group, _______, whom were bipedal carnivores.
______ are amniotes that have hair and produce milk.
Mammals have (5):
-Mammary glands, which produce milk
-A higher metabolic rate, due to endothermy
-A larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size
Mammals evolved from ________.
________ are a small group of egg-laying mammals consisting of echidnas and the platypus.
________ include opossums, kangaroos, and koalas.