_______, agents that cause disease, infect a wide range of animals, including humans.
The _________ recognizes foreign bodies and responds with production of immune cells and proteins.
All animals have __________, a defense active immediately upon infection.
Vertebrates also have _____________; refers to antigen-specific immune response.
In __________, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens.
-found in all plants/animals
-in vertebrates, 1st response to infections and serves as foundation to adaptive immunity.
In insects, an _________ made of chitin forms 1st barrier of pathogens.
The digestive system is protected by a chitin-based barrier and _______, an enzyme that breaks down cell walls.
Hemocytes circulate within hemolymph and carry out ________, the ingestion and digestion of foreign substances including bacteria; hemocytes also secrete antimicrobal peptides that disrupt the plasma membranes of fungi and bacteria.
Innate defenses include (3):
1. Barrier Defenses
3. Antimicrobal Peptides
Additional defenses unique to vertebrates include (3):
1. Natural Killer Cells
3. Inflammatory Response
•Barrier defenses include the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
•Mucus traps and allows for the removal of microbes
•Many body fluids including saliva, mucus, and tears are hostile to many microbes
•The low pH of skin and the digestive system prevents growth of many bacteria
Cellular Innate Defenses; Pathogens entering the mammalian body are subject to phagocytosis; Phagocytic cells recognize groups of pathogens by: __________
TLRs, Toll-like receptors
A white blood cell engulfs a microbe, then fuses with a lysosome to destroy the microbe; there are 4 different types of phagocytic cells:
–(1) Neutrophils engulf and destroy pathogens
–(2) Macrophages are found throughout the body. “large eaters”
–(3) Dendritic cells stimulate development of adaptive immunity
–(4) Eosinophils discharge destructive enzymes
___________circulate through the body and detect abnormal cells and release chemicals leading to cell death, inhibiting the spread of virally infected or cancerous cells
Natural Killer Cells.
___________ proteins provide innate defense, interfering with viruses and helping activate macrophages; about 30 proteins make up the _____________, which causes lysis of invading cells and helps trigger inflammation
Interferons; complement system.
The ____________, such as pain and swelling, is brought about by molecules released upon injury of infection
_________, a type of connective tissue, release __________, which triggers blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable
Mast Cells; Histamine.
Activated macrophages and neutrophils release __________, signaling molecules that enhance the immune response
In adaptive immunity, receptors provide pathogen-specific recognition, which relies on two types of _________, or white blood cells.
Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus above the heart are called ______, and those that mature in bone marrow are called _______.
T cells; B cells.
__________ are substances that can elicit a response from a B or T cell and exposure to the pathogen activates B and T cells with _____________ specific for parts of that pathogen; the small accessible part of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor is called an _______.
Antigens; antigen receptors; epitope.
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