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Flashcards in Ch 4 Deck (48):
1

Tolerance

Ability to survive and reproduce under range of environmental conditions

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When condition goes beyond optimum range...

Organism has to expend more energy to maintain homeostasis, leaving less energy for growth and reproduction

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Habitat

General place where an organism lives

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Niche

Describes how organism interacts with biotic and abiotic factors
What an organism does
Range of physical and biological conditions in which species lives and the way it obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce

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Resource

Any necessity of life

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Abiotic factors

Physical aspects

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Biotic factors

Biological aspects
Example: when and how it reproduces, food it eats and how it obtains food

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Competition occurs when

Organisms attempt to use same limited ecological resource in same place and time

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Intraspecific competition

Competition among members of same species

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Interspecific competition

Between members of different species

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Competitive exclusion principle

No 2 species can occupy exact same niche in exact same habitat and time

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By causing species to divide resources competition helps determine...

Number and kinds of species and the niches they occupy

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Keystone species

Species that other species rely on in an ecosystem such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change dramatically

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Symbiosis

Any relationship where 2 species live closely together

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3 types of symbiosis

Mutualism
Parasitism
Commensalism

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Mutualism

Both benefit

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Parasitism

One organism lives on or in another and harms it

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Commensalism

One benefits and other is neither helped nor harmed

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Ecological succession

Series of more or less predictable hanged that occur in a community over time

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Organisms occupy different places because

Each species has a range of conditions under which it can grow and reproduce

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Ecosystems change...

Over time esp after disturbances as some species die out and new species move in

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Over course of succession...

Number of different species present typically increases

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Primary succession

Succession that begins in an area with no remnants of an older community

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Secondary succession

Occurs when disturbance affects a community without completely destroying it

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Succession doesn't always...

Follow same path
Climax communities not always uniform and stable

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Secondary selection in healthy ecosystems following natural disturbances...

Often reproduces original climax community

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Human caused disturbances

Ecosystems may or may not recover from extensive human caused disturbances

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Biomes

Described in terms of abiotic and biotic factors

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Examples of abiotic factors

Climate and soil type

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Examples of biotic factors

Plant and animal life

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Terrestrial biomes

Tropical rain forest
Tropical dry forest
Tropical grassland/savannah/shrubland
Desert
Temperate grassland
Temperate woodland and shrubland
Temperate forest
Northwestern coniferous forest
Boreal forest/ taiga
Tundra

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Organisms within each biome can be characterized by

Adaptations that enable them to live and reproduce successfully

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Mountain ranges and polar ice caps

Not classified as biomes because they are not easily defined in terms of a typical community of plants and animals

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Aquatic organisms are affected primarily by

Waters depth, temperature, flow. And amount of dissolved nutrients

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Distance from shore can

Shape marine communities

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Water depth influences aquatic life because

Sunlight penetrated only a short distance through water

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Photic zone

Sunlight region near surface where photosynthesis can occur

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Aphotic zone

Below photic zone where photosynthesis cannot occur

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Benthos

Aquatic organisms that live in or on rocks and sediments on bottom of lakes, streams, and oceans
Habitat- benthic zone

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Currents can dramatically affect

Water temperature

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Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into

3 main categories:
Rivers and streams
Lakes and ponds
Freshwater wetlands

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Wetland

Ecosystem where water either covers soil or is present at or near surface for at least part of year

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Freshwater bodies

Stream
Lake
Bog
Marsh
Swamp

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Estuary

Special kind of wetland formed where river meets sea

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Estuaries serve as

Spawning and nursing grinds for many ecologically and commercially important fish and crabfish species

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Estuary bodies

Salt marsh
Mangrove swamp

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Ecologists typically dives oceans into

Zones based on depth and distance from shore

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Marine ecosystem zones

Intertidal zone
coastal ocean
Open ocean