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Flashcards in Macromolecules Deck (22):
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Organic chemistry

Study of carbon compounds

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Carbon bonds with

Many different things forming millions of possible compounds

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Macromolecules

Large organic molecules of life found in cells

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Most macromolecules are formed by

Polymerization, the chaining together of many similar pieces to form a whole

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Four major groups of macromolecules

Carbs
Proteins
Nuclei acids
Lipids

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Carbs are made of...

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
1:2:1 ratio

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Carbs

Main energy source for life
Used for structural purposes

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Monosaccharides

Simple sugars
Glucose
Galactose
Fructose

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Disaccharides

Polymerizations of monosaccharides
Sucrose

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Polysaccharides

Complex carbs

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Excess sugar in plants and animals

Stored in Polysaccharides
Animals = glycogen
Plants = starch

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Proteins

Contain c o h and n

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Polypeptides

Polymerization of amino acids

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Protein

One or more polypeptides together with other components
Controls reaction rates, regulates cell processes, forms certain cell structures, transports substances in and out of cell, helps form the immune system

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4 levels of structures of proteins

Primary structure- sequence of amino acids
Secondary structure- folding/ coiling of amino acid chain into polypeptide
Tertiary structure- 3D arrangement of entire protein include any other attached components
Quadripartite structure- if applicable- describes orientation of multiple polypeptide chains in relation to each other r

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Lipids are generally not ---- in water

Soluble

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Lipids

Typically used for long term energy storage
Also used to form biological membranes
Steroids- important for communication
Formed by combining molecule of glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains

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Saturated fat

All single bonds in fatty acid chains with max number of Hs
Tend to be solid at room temp

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Unsaturated fats

One or more double bonds in fatty acid chains
Tend to be liquid at room temp
Monounsaturated- one double bound
Polyunsaturated- 2 or more double bonds

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Nucleus acids contain

C H O N and P

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Nucleic acids

Polymers of monomers called nucleotides
Nucleotides consist of:
5 carbon sugar
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base
Store and transmit hereditary info in form of DNA and RNA

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Nucleotides

Sometimes play critical roles in energy transfer in body