Ch 4: Moving from notions to numbers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 4: Moving from notions to numbers Deck (18):

What is pilot testing?

Pilot testing is used most frequently to refer to the use of practice studies that are designed to help researchers refine the measures or manipulations they wish to use in the full-blown version of a real study.


What happens during the judgment phase?

During the judgement phase of answering a self-report question, participants determine what question is being asked, and they form some initial response to the question


What kinds of self-report methods can there be?

1. Paper and pencil

2. Face to face interview

3. Telephone interview or internet

4. Experience sampling (diary method)


What is a focus group?

1. In a focus group a small but representative sample of participants from the group a researcher wishes to understand meet together to discuss their experiences

2. These semi-structured discussions are usually led by the researcher, whose goal is to keep the focus group on track


What is an open-ended question?

An open-ended question is one where the participants are asked to fill out an answer in their own words


What is a double-barreled question?

A double-barreled question is a question that asks you to evaluate two different things using a single response

Example: I am a lovable and capable person. If the participant feels lovable but not capable, or vice versa, how are they supposed to respond to this question?


What is a forced-choice question?

A forced choice question is a question that asks participants to select one of two or more options

Example: Do you prefer apples or oranges? Would you rather get a cat or a dog? Although these questions do allow people to indicate preference, they do not yield the kind of information researchers usually like to have about people.


What is the floor effect? Ceiling effect?

1. Floor effects occur when almost everyone in a sample responds at the same low level on a question or dependent measure.

2. Ceiling effects are the exact opposite. They occur when almost everyone in a sample responds at the same high level on a question or dependent measure.


What is restriction of range?

1. Restriction of range occurs anytime people's scores on a measure have little or no variance

2. When there is restriction of range it is difficult, if not impossible, to find anything that will predict people's score on that measure


What are anchors?

Anchors are simply adjectives that lend meaning to the numbers on a scale


What is the difference between unipolar and bipolar rating scales?

1. Unipolar scales ask respondents to make ratings on dimensions that begin at some very low value.

2. Bipolar scales ask respondents to rate a quantity that deviates in both directions from a zero point.


What is memory telescoping?

Memory telescoping is the tendency to recall events as more recent than their actual dates


What are loaded questions?

Loaded questions are ones that indicate which response the researcher considers most desirable

Example: To what extent do you trust the police who protect and serve our city's residents? The phrase "who protect and serve our city's residents" strongly suggests that people should place trust in the police.


What are collateral reports?

Collateral reports are third party responses to a questionnaire or interview


What are psysiological measures?

Physiological measures are internal processes that are not directly observable


What is the response translation phase?

The response translation phase is when the participant must convert their internal psychological state into a value on a respons scale


What is the semantic differential questionnaire?

The semantic differential questionnaire is a self-report technique for attitude measurement in which participants are asked to check which cell between a set of bipolar adjectives or phrases best describes their feeling toward the object


What is the Thurstone scale?

1. The Thurston scale is a way of measuring people's attitudes along a single dimension by asking them to indicate that they agree or disagree with each of a large set of statements that are about that attitude

2. The statements are designed to be parallel in construction, but some toward one end of the scale and some toward the other end, and each trying to indicate the attitude in a slightly different way