CH. 41 OBSTETRICS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH. 41 OBSTETRICS Deck (86):
1

expulsion of the fetus from any cause before the 20th week of gestation

abortion

2

a premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus

abruptio placenta

3

a watery fluid that provides the fetus with a weightless environment in which to develop

amniotic fluid

4

when the amniotic fluid and fetal cells enter the pregnant woman's pulmonary and circulatory system through the placenta via the umbilical veins causing an exaggerated allergic response from the woman's body

amniotic fluid embolism

5

the fluid filled bag like membrane in which the fetus develops

amniotic sac

6

a scoring system for assessing the status of a newborn that assigns a number value to each of five areas of assessment

Apgar scoring system

7

an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina characterized by burning itching pain and a fishy smell

bacterial vaginosis

8

the term for an oocyte once it has been fertilized and multiplies into cells

blastocyst

9

a plug of mucus sometimes mixed with blood expelled from the dilating cervix and discharged form the vagina

bloody show

10

a delivery in which the buttocks come out first

breech presentation

11

a vaginal infection that is not technically a sexually transmitted infection and most common in a pregnant female; also called thrush or yeast infection

candidiasis

12

a situation in which the head of the fetus is larger than the woman's pelvis and a C-section is required

cephalopelvic disproportion

13

the interior of the cervix

cervical canal

14

the narrowest portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina

cervix

15

an STD transmitted from the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and has the highest incidence in STDs; signs and symptoms include inflammation of the urethra, epididymis, cervix, and fallopian tubules, and discharge from the urethra

chlamydia

16

a disease of the liver that only occurs during pregnancy and in which hormones affect the gallbladder by slowing down or blocking normal bile flow from the liver; most common system is profuse, painful itching of the hands and feet

cholestasis

17

a blood pressure that is equal to or greater than 140/90 mm Hg which exists prior to pregnancy occurring before the 20th week of pregnancy or continues to persist postpartum

chronic hypertension

18

expulsion of all products of conception from the uterus

complete abortion

19

the remains of a follicle after an oocyte has been released and which secretes progesterone

corpus luteum

20

the appearance of the newborn's body part (usually the head) at the vaginal opening at the beginning of labor

crowning

21

a herpesvirus that can produce the symptoms of prolonged high fever, chills, headache, malaise, fatigue, and an enlarged spleen

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

22

seizures that result from severe hypertension in a pregnant woman

eclampsia

23

an egg that attaches outside the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube

ectopic pregnancy

24

thinning and shortening of the cervix; this is a normal process that occurs as the uterus contracts

effacement

25

intentional expulsion of the fetus

elective abortion

26

the fetus in the earliest stages after fertilization

embryo

27

the innermost layer of tissue in the uterus

endometrium

28

an incision in the perineal skin made to prevent tearing during childbirth

episiotomy

29

the vehicles of transportation of the ova from the ovaries to the uterus; also called the oviducts

fallopian tubes

30

a situation in which the a fetus is large usually weighing more than 4500 grams or almost 9 pounds; known as large for gestational age

fetal macrosomia

31

the developing unborn infant inside the uterus

fetus

32

the stage of labor that begins with the onset of regular labor pains, crampy abdominal pains during which the uterus contracts and the cervix effaces

first stage of labor

33

a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that is important in the menstrual cycle

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

34

the dome shaped top of the uterus

fundus

35

the time that it takes for the fetus to develop in utero, usually 38 weeks

gestational period

36

an STD that results from infection caused by gonococcal bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; sign and symptoms include pus containing discharge from the urethra and painful urination in men and acute abdomen in women

gonorrhea

37

the total number of times pregnant including the current pregnancy

gravid

38

a term used to refer to the number of times a woman has been pregnant regardless of the outcome

gravidity

39

three or more consecutive pregnancies that end in miscarriage

habitual abortion

40

an infection of the genitals, buttocks, or anal area caused by HSV type 1 or 2

herpes

41

an infection that causes AIDS

HIV

42

the most common STD that can cause genital warts and some types of cancer

human papilloma virus (HPV)

43

a condition in which there is too much amniotic fluid; also known as polyhydramnios

hydramnios

44

a condition of persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

hyperemesis gravidarum

45

a spontaneous abortion that cannot be prevented

imminent abortion

46

expulsion of the fetus that results in some products of conception remaining in the uterus

incomplete abortion

47

the mechanism by which the fetus and the placenta are expelled from the uterus

labor

48

in pregnancy a feeling of relief of pressure in the upper abdomen; a premonitory sign of labor

lightening

49

the vaginal discharge of blood and mucus that occurs following delivery of a newborn; usually lasts several days and then gradually decreases over the weeks following delivery

lochia

50

a hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the process of ovulation

luteinizing hormone (LH)

51

a dark greenish black material in the amniotic fluid that indicates fetal distress

meconium

52

a situation in which a fetus has died during the first 20 weeks of gestation, but has remained in utero

missed abortion

53

the middle layer of tissue in the uterus

myometrium

54

a situation in which the umbilical cord is wrapped around the fetus's neck; a cord compression that may occur during labor causing the fetal heart rate to slow down

nuchal cord

55

an egg produced from the female ovary

oocyte

56

a process in which an ovum is released from a follicle

ovulation

57

a mature oocyte

ovum

58

the number of live births

para

59

number of live births a woman has had

parity

60

the outer protective layer of tissue in the uterus

perimetrium

61

the tissue attached to the uterine wall that nourishes the fetus through the umbilical cord

placenta

62

a condition in which the placenta develops over and covers the cervix

placenta previa

63

the period of time after a woman has given birth

postpartum

64

a condition of late pregnancy that involves gradual onset of hypertension headache visual changes and swelling of hands and feet; also called pregnancy-induced hypertension or toxemia of pregnancy

preeclampsia

65

high blood pressure that develops after the 20th week of pregnancy in women with previously normal blood pressures and resolves spontaneously in the postpartum period

pregnancy induced hypertension

66

the state of pregnant woman before birth

prenatal

67

a hormone that influences the second phase of the menstrual cycle when the oocyte is either fertilized or dies

progesterone

68

a situation in which the umbilical cord comes out of the vagina before the newborn

prolapsed umbilical cord

69

a protein found on the red blood cells of most people; when a woman without this protein is impregnated by a man with this protein, the woman's body can create antibodies against the protein and attack future pregnancies

Rh factor

70

a viral disease similar to measles, best known by the distinctive red rash on the skin; not nearly as infectious or severe as measles

rubella

71

the stage of labor in which the newborn's head enters the birth canal, during which contractions become more intense and more frequent

second stage of labor

72

a life threatening emergency in which the uterus becomes infected following any type of infection

septic abortion

73

a complication of delivery in which there is difficulty delivering the shoulders of a newborn, the shoulder cannot get past the woman's symphysis pubis

shoulder dystocia

74

expulsion of the fetus that occurs naturally; also called a miscarriage

spontaneous abortion

75

low blood pressure resulting from compression of the inferior vena cava by the weight of the pregnant uterus when the woman is supine

supine hypotensive syndrome

76

an STD that manifests in three stages and transmitted through direct contact with open sores; commonly found in the genital region and observed as a lesion or open sore

syphilis

77

the stage of labor in which the placenta is expelled

third stage of labor

78

expulsion of the fetus that is attempting to take place but has not yet occurred; usually occurs in the first trimester

threatened abortion

79

an infection caused by a parasite that pregnant may get by eating contaminated food

toxoplasmosis

80

a delivery in which the fetus lies crosswise in the uterus; one hand may protrude through the vagina

transverse presentation

81

a parasitic infection caused by a single parasite transmitted through sexual contact; may be asymptomatic or characterized by frothy, yellow green vaginal discharge with strong odor, irritation, and itching of the female genital area, discomfort during intercourse, dysuria, and lower abdominal pain

trichomoniasis

82

the conduit connecting the pregnant woman to the fetus via the placenta; contains two arteries and one vein

umbilical cord

83

the interior of the body of the uterus

uterine cavity

84

a potentially fatal complication of childbirth in which the placenta fails to detach properly and results in the uterus turning inside out

uterine inversion

85

a muscular inverted pear-shaped organ that lies situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum

uterus

86

a tubular organ lined with mucous membranes, that is the power portion of the brith canal

vagina