Ch. 45 Animal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 45 Animal Behavior Deck (49):
1

behavior

anything the animal does and how it does it
-response to a stimulus

2

what are tinbergen's four questions?

1. causation
2. development
3. adaptive function
4. evolutionary history

3

causality

1. proximate: HOW (what stimulus triggered this? what are genetic/physiological mechanisms of this behavior?)

2. ultimate: WHY (why did natural selection favor this behavior? how does behavior improve fitness?)

4

example: the spiny lobster forages at night and returns to its den before dawn. what are proximate and ultimate causes of this behavior?

proximate: HOW they navigate at night? physiological mechanism to guide them in the dark with the earth's magnetism

ultimate: WHY do they navigate at night? hunting for food under cover of darkness protects them from predation

5

behavior is a combination of _____ and _____ factors

genetic and environmental

6

development

how did the behavior develop?
-genes and the environment shaping behavior
-ex. bird sings because he learned to sing form his father

7

adaptive function

-behavior and how its promotes the survival/reproduction of individuals
-ex. male bird sings because it attracts females = more reproduction

8

evolutionary history

how behavior evolved over time
-complex bird songs evolved because ancestors sang over time and the songs became habituated in the population
-bird songs may have evolved because originally used to claim territories, but now used to attract mates

9

innate behaviors

instinctive and carried out regardless of earlier experiences
-male bombyx moth innately flies toward female pheromones (does not need to learn this, does it spontaneously)

10

learned behaviors

depend's on an individual's experiences
-fruit flies avoid flying toward area where they had an unpleasant experience

11

displays

patterns of behavior that are species specific, tend to be highly repeatable, and similar from one individual to the next

-example of a fixed action pattern

-birds who are isolated usually still perform the same displays as their own species of birds

12

fixed action pattern (FAP)

-series of behaviors that are automatically followed through to completion once initiated
-innate
-behavior s so important that all variaiton has been lost

-ex. goose egg retrieval, fish attacking automatically

13

key stimulus

example - misplaced egg
"trigger"

14

supernormal stimulus

-soccer ball instead of an egg
supernormal because the soccer ball is way larger than any egg and causes an exaggerated response

15

feature detectors

carries out stimulus recognition
-specialized sensory receptors that respond to important signals in the environment
-sometimes these responses trigger the release of certain hormones

16

hormones can affect _____

behavior

ex. testosterone

17

learning

when experiences lead to changes in behavior

18

non associative learning

learning that occurs in the absence of any particular outcome (such a punishment/reward)

-"habituation" and "sensitization" is a type of associative learning

19

habituation

-examples: initially, chicks crouch when a shadow is over them, but they learn to stop crouching because there is no real threat

decreased response to a stimulus over time
less sensitive to each subsequent response

20

sensitization

increased response to a stimulus over time
more sensitive to each subsequent response

21

associative learning (conditioning)

animal learns to link (associate) two events
-classical
-operative

22

classical conditioning

when two stimuli are paired that have nothing to do with each other

-example: dogs hear ringing bell sound/receive meat powder (eventually, dogs salivate at the sound of the bell alone)

23

operant conditioning

linking a behavior with a reward or punishment
-reward leads to more occurrences of a behavior, punishment leads to less of a particular behavior

ex: training a dog to pee/poop outside

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type of conditioning where association is made between a stimulus and a behavior

classical

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type of conditioning where association is made between a behavior and a response

operant

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imitation

one individual copies another

ex: octopus learns to open a jar by watching a human do it

27

imprinting

type of learning typically seen in young animals
-young animals acquire a certain behavior in response to key experiences during a critical part of their development

28

filial imprinting

-usually irreversible
-the first being that a hatchling sees is its parent
-typical in animals whose offspring leave the nest and walk around while still young (they need to know who their parents are)
-NOT typical in offspring whose young stay in the nest

29

kineses

random, undirected movements

ex: paramecium flails when it is in uncomfortable water temperatures, but is not moving toward anything, just random movement for discomfort

30

taxes (taxis)

movements in a specific direction in response to a stimulus

ex: bacteria moving toward a magnetic field

31

why are female usually pickier about their mate choices?

females must invest more energy into making eggs, so they make sure they find a good mate who will input good genes and lead to the most successful reproduction possible

32

circadian clock

regulate many daily rhythms in animals such as feeding, sleeping, eating, reproduction, core body temp, hormones

33

migration

the long distance movement of a population associated with the change in seasons/resources

34

piloting

use of familiar landmarks
-In many birds and mammals, young follow their
parents and memorize the route

35

compass orientation

movement in a particular direction
– Using the sun, stars, or the Earth’s magnetic field

36

communication

transfer of information between two individuals (sender and receiver)

37

sender

supplies signal that elicits a response form a receiver

(bright petals of a flower signal to an insect that pollen/nectar are available)

38

ritualization

1. making behavior more obvious
2. reducing amount of variaiton of the behavior
3. separate behavior form the original function

ex: scent markings for territory (original function was to eliminate waste, now pee on things to mark your territory)

39

advertisement displays

-individuals draw attention to their status
-complex bird songs, cricket calls, frog sounds

40

altruism

self sacrifice
-decrease the fitness of the organism exhibiting the behavior and increase the fitness of the recipient

-group works better as a unit
-self sacrifice trumps selfish behavior in terms of natural selection

this is GROUP SELECTION

41

evolutionary stable strategy

behavior that is not readily driven to extinction by an alternative strategy

42

reciprocal altruism

individuals exchange favors

43

kin selection

1. individual can have offspring
2. individual can have no offspring and help to raise another individual instead who is related to them

(hamilton's rule)

44

eusocial

overlapping generations live in the same nest

45

optimal foraging theory

what should I eat and how cheap can I get it?

-States that animals make decisions that maximize the intake of usable energy

• Usable energy = the energy taken in minus the energy spent looking for & ingesting food

• Also must take into account the risk of being eaten while foraging

example: if birds travel far, its more cost effective to forage a lot of insects to make the travel worth their time

46

sexual selection

traits evolve that increase the probability of finding/attracting mates

47

sexual dimorphism

phenotypic differences between sexes

ex: male and female lions look very different
males are usually more showy because they must attract mates, also they do not use a lot of energy in making sperm. females use a lot of energy to make eggs and are usually not as showy

48

intrasexual selection

is when members of the same sex (within a species) compete with each other in order to gain opportunities to mate with others

e.g. the male against male competition for females

49

intersexual selection

selection based on one sex of the species preferring some characteristic in the other sex of the species

ex: female peacocks tend to prefer male peacocks with bright plumage: a brightly colored male peacock has a selective advantage