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Flashcards in CH 5 Deck (35)
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1

What are the three components of connective tissue?

Cells, Protein fibers, and Ground Substance

2

Fibroblasts

produces fibers and ground substance

3

Adipocytes

lipid storages (fat cells)

4

Mesenchymal cells

type of stem cell that can divide to replace damaged cells

5

Fixed macrophages

Phagocytose (engulf) damaged cells or pathogens

6

What are wandering cells?

Immune cells that move through tissue

7

Free macrophages

mobile phagocytic cells

8

Lymphocytes

attack foreign material

9

Mast cells

inhibit clotting and secrete histamine to dilate blood vessels

10

What is the function of protein fibers?

Strengthen and support the tissue

11

Collagen fibers

thick, unbranched fibers that are strong, flexible, and resistant to stretching

12

Reticular fibers

Thinner fibers that form a branching, interwoven framework

13

Elastic fibers

Branching, wavy fibers that stretch and recoil easily and contain elastin protein

14

What is ground substance?

Nonliving "background" material produced by connective tissue cells.
- Contains water and large hydrophilic molecules.
- GAGs, Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins

15

What are some functions of connective tissue CT?

1. Physical protection: bones and adipose tissue
2. Support and structural framework: bones and cartilage
3. Storage: adipose tissue and bones (calcium and phosphorus)
4. Binding of structures: tendons and ligaments
5. Transport: blood
6. Immune protection: wandering cells

16

Areolar connective tissue

Loose organization of collagen and elastic fibers.
- both fixed and wandering cells
- surrounds organs, nerve and muscle cells, and blood vessels.
LOOSE CT Proper

17

Adipose connective tissue

composed primarily of adipocytes filled with lipid droplets.
- stores energy
- insulates
- cushions organs
LOOSE CT Proper

18

Reticular connective tissue

Contains a meshwork of reticular fibers with fibroblasts and leukocytes.
- Forms framework of many organs (spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and bone marrow)
LOOSE CT Proper

19

Loose Connective Tissue proper

Has abundant ground substance with fewer cells and protein fibers

20

Dense connective tissue proper

Mostly protein fibers with less ground substance and cells

21

Dense regular CT

tightly packed parallel collagen fibers
- found in placers with single-direction stress, such as tendons and ligaments
- has few blood vessels = takes a long time to heal
DENSE CT Proper

22

Dense irregular CT

Clumps of collagen fibers in all directions
- Provides support and resistance to stress in multiple directions
- Has extensive blood supply
DENSE CT Proper

23

Elastic CT

Contains branching, densely packed elastic fibers
- Has more fibroblasts than loose CT
- Able to stretch and recoil
DENSE CT Proper

24

Cartilage

Supporting CT
- Firm, semisolid ground substance with collagen and elastic fibers
- Strong, resilient and more flexible than bone.
- Found in areas of body that must withstand deformation

25

How are chondrocytes, lacunae, and perichondrium related?

Chondrocytes (cells) occupy small spaces called lacunae. These are then surrounded by a perichondrium.

26

What is unique about mature cartilage?

Avascular = has no blood vessels

27

Hyaline cartilage

Most common supporting CT type.
- Supports and cushions
- Clear, glassy appearance with scattered chondrocytes
- Firm matrix

28

Fibrocartilage

Weight bearing cartilage, resists compression
- protein fibers in irregular bundles between chondrocytes contribute to durability
- sparse amount of ground substance and few cells
- no perichondrium

29

Elastic cartilage

Flexible and springy
- numerous densely packed elastic fibers ensure tissue is flexible and resists deformation
- chondrocytes are closely packed

30

Endocrine glands

lack ducts and secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid or blood
- hormones act as chemical messengers that influence cell activity elsewhere