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Flashcards in CH. 2 Deck (17)
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1

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

2

Chemical Element

A substance made up of atoms

3

Isotope

Same # of protons, different # of neutrons.

4

Hydrophilic

Water loving

5

Hydrophobic

Water fearing

6

Buffer

A solution that resists changes in pH

7

Organic Molecule

Basic building blocks found in cells: Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, Proteins, and Lipids = Macromolecules

8

Monomer

The very basic building block for polymers

9

Polymer

Macromolecules composed of repeating units of smaller monomers.

10

Steroid

Hydrocarbons that form multi-ring structures. Types include: Cholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile salts

11

Chromosome

Long molecules of DNA that are made up of genes that store information needed to make one specific protein.

12

Gene

stores information needed to make one specific protein

13

ATP

Adenosine Tri Phosphate: Energy currency of cells. (Breaking the high energy bonds b/w the phosphate groups provides energy for cellular activities)

14

Four most common elements in the human body:

Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen

15

What is created if you add or subtract electrons from an atom?

An ion; cation = (+) or anion (-) charge

16

Name the four types of biological macromolecules and give an example of each.

1. Carbohydrates: Sugars
2. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
3. Proteins: Enzymes, structural molecules
4. Lipids: Fats, oils, phospholipids, steroids

17

What's the difference between fats and oils?

Fats are solid and saturated. Oils are liquid at room temperature and unsaturated