Flashcards in Ch. 5-6 Learning and Memory Deck (47):
Process that produces change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience
repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response.
Stimulus that normally triggers no response
Natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning. (Food in dogs mouth)
The unlearned, reflexive response elicited by unconditioned stimulus (dog drooling)
Formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response (bell sound)
Learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus. (Dog salivating to bell
Extinction (in classical conditioning)
Gradual weakening/disappearance of conditioned behavior.
Occurs when conditioned stimulus (bell) is repeatedly presented without unconditioned stimulus (food)
Reappearance of previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to conditioned stimulus.
Occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus, but to other similar stimuli as well
Occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli
Higher/second order conditioning
(Baby crying when seeing a nurse coat because it's thinks it's getting a shot.)
Conditioned stimulus from one trial becomes unconditioned stimulus in second trial even though it was never directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Robert Rescorla's point: cognition involved
For learning to occur the conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts the presentations of the unconditioned stimulus.
Thorndike: trial and error/law of effect
Responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur. Responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur.
Something is added.
Response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing likelihood of recurrence.
Something is subtracted
Response results in removal/avoidance/escape from a punishing stimulus increasing likelihood of recurrence.
Escape vs. avoid
Escape aversive stimuli that are already present
Avoid aversive stimuli before they occur.
Punishment by application
Operant is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus (positive punishment)
(Dog jumps on visitor; you smack it with rolled up newspaper)
Punishment by removal
Operant is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus. (Negative punishment)
(Guy flirts with other girl and gets dumped by girlfriend)
Exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior.
Me and school.
Mental representation of the layout of a familiar environment. (Tolman)
Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others
Naturally reinforcing for a given species
Ie. Food, water, sexual contact, adequate warmth.
One that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer.
Ie. Money, frequent flyer points, college degrees
Can be used to acquire primary reinforcers. And other conditioned reinforcers.
Reinforcing successively closer approximations of a behavior until the correct behavior is displayed.
Fixed ratio reinforcement
Reinforcement occurs after fixed number of responses
Packing 100 envelopes for $1
Variable ratio reinforcement
Occurs after an average number of responses that vary between trials.
Fixed interval reinforcement
Reinforcer delivered for first response emitted after preset time interval elapses.
IRL: a test in class every four weeks
Variable interval reinforcement
Occurs for first response emitted after an average amount of time elapsed. Varies per trial
IRL: a kid whining constantly because they know it will eventually pay off.
Memories of different skills, operations, actions. Ie. Shoe lacing.
General knowledge, concepts, facts, names
Ie. US presidents. Ingredients in soup
Memories of particular events
My birthday last year.
Producing information with no retrieval cues
Essay tests not multiple choice.
Remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue.
Fill in the blank.
Identifying the correct info from several possible choices.
Multiple choice test
Tip of the tongue
Knowing the information is stored, but not being able to retrieve it.
Serial position effect
Tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle.
Recall of very specific details or images surrounding a significant, rare, or vivid event.
Ebbinghaus forgetting curve
Much of what we learn is forgotten soon after originally learning it.
Amount of forgetting eventually levels off.
Forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes that occur in the brain over time.
Forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another.
Suppression: deliberately forgetting (car accident)
Repression: unconscious forgetting (rapey stuff)
Can have distorted recollection of events after exposure to misinformation.
Search for engram
Memories are stored locally and spread out
Unable to remember some or all of their past especially recent events.
Unable to form new memories.