Ch. 5-6 Learning and Memory Flashcards Preview

Psych 102 > Ch. 5-6 Learning and Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 5-6 Learning and Memory Deck (47):
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Learning

Process that produces change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience

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Classical/Pavlovian conditioning

repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response.

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Neutral stimulus

Stimulus that normally triggers no response

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Unconditioned stimulus

Natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning. (Food in dogs mouth)

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Unconditioned response

The unlearned, reflexive response elicited by unconditioned stimulus (dog drooling)

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Conditioned stimulus

Formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response (bell sound)

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Conditioned response

Learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus. (Dog salivating to bell

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Extinction (in classical conditioning)

Gradual weakening/disappearance of conditioned behavior.

Occurs when conditioned stimulus (bell) is repeatedly presented without unconditioned stimulus (food)

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Spontaneous recovery

Reappearance of previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to conditioned stimulus.

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Stimulus generalization

Occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus, but to other similar stimuli as well

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Stimulus discrimination

Occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli

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Higher/second order conditioning

(Baby crying when seeing a nurse coat because it's thinks it's getting a shot.)

Conditioned stimulus from one trial becomes unconditioned stimulus in second trial even though it was never directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

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Robert Rescorla's point: cognition involved

For learning to occur the conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts the presentations of the unconditioned stimulus.

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Thorndike: trial and error/law of effect

Responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur. Responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur.

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Positive reinforcement

Something is added.

Response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing likelihood of recurrence.

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Negative reinforcement

Something is subtracted

Response results in removal/avoidance/escape from a punishing stimulus increasing likelihood of recurrence.

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Escape vs. avoid

Escape aversive stimuli that are already present

Avoid aversive stimuli before they occur.

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Punishment by application

Operant is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus (positive punishment)

(Dog jumps on visitor; you smack it with rolled up newspaper)

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Punishment by removal

Operant is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus. (Negative punishment)


(Guy flirts with other girl and gets dumped by girlfriend)

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Learned helplessness.

Exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior.

Me and school.

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Cognitive map

Mental representation of the layout of a familiar environment. (Tolman)

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Social/observational learning

Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others

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Primary reinforcer

Naturally reinforcing for a given species

Ie. Food, water, sexual contact, adequate warmth.

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Secondary/conditioned reinforcer

One that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer.

Ie. Money, frequent flyer points, college degrees

Can be used to acquire primary reinforcers. And other conditioned reinforcers.

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Shaping/behavior modification

Reinforcing successively closer approximations of a behavior until the correct behavior is displayed.

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Fixed ratio reinforcement

Reinforcement occurs after fixed number of responses


Packing 100 envelopes for $1

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Variable ratio reinforcement

Occurs after an average number of responses that vary between trials.


IRL: gambling

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Fixed interval reinforcement

Reinforcer delivered for first response emitted after preset time interval elapses.

IRL: a test in class every four weeks

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Variable interval reinforcement

Occurs for first response emitted after an average amount of time elapsed. Varies per trial

IRL: a kid whining constantly because they know it will eventually pay off.

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Procedural memory

Long term.

Memories of different skills, operations, actions. Ie. Shoe lacing.

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Semantic memory

Long term.

General knowledge, concepts, facts, names

Ie. US presidents. Ingredients in soup

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Episodic memory

Long term.

Memories of particular events

My birthday last year.

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Free recall

Producing information with no retrieval cues


Essay tests not multiple choice.

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Cues recall

Remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue.


Fill in the blank.

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Recognition

Identifying the correct info from several possible choices.


Multiple choice test

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Tip of the tongue

Knowing the information is stored, but not being able to retrieve it.

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Serial position effect

Tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle.

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Flashbulb memories

Recall of very specific details or images surrounding a significant, rare, or vivid event.

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Ebbinghaus forgetting curve

Much of what we learn is forgotten soon after originally learning it.

Amount of forgetting eventually levels off.

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Decay theory

Forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes that occur in the brain over time.

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Interference theory

Forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another.

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Motivated forgetting

Suppression: deliberately forgetting (car accident)

Repression: unconscious forgetting (rapey stuff)

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Eyewitnesses

Can have distorted recollection of events after exposure to misinformation.

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Search for engram

Memories are stored locally and spread out

Karl lashley
Richard Thompson

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Retrograde amnesia

Unable to remember some or all of their past especially recent events.

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Anterograde amnesia

Unable to form new memories.

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Alzheimer's

Form of dimensia

Disease. Destroys brains neurons, gradually impairing memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions. Results in complete inability to care for oneself.