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RAD 212 - Special Procedures > Ch 5 - Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 5 - Pharmacology Deck (110)
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1

Requires candidate for the advanced level exam to have some understanding regarding the types some understanding regarding the types & administration routes, indications, contraindications and complications of various drugs

ARRT

2

"Keyholes" for specific drugs
Specialized location on a cell membrane or inside a cell
Specific biological sites located on a cell surface or within a cell

Receptor

3

3 drugs that have a specific affinity or attraction for their specific receptors

Agonist
Antagonist
Mixed agonist/antagonist

4

Drug or natural substance that combines with receptors and initiates a series of biochemical and physiological changes
Stimulates or enhances the body's natural response to stimulation
Ex: given epinephrine for someone with asthma like symptoms, this is a bronchodilator, no new function was developed only enhanced to make the person able to breath properly again

Agonist

5

Drug's ability able to produce a response

Intrinsic activity

6

Blocks/doesn't stimulate receptors
Inhibit or counteract effects produced by other drugs or undesired effects

Antagonist

7

Used at times to counteract the action of the agonist
Each class of drugs is competing for the receptor sites
Overall result will depend upon which class binds to the most receptor sites

Competitive antagonism

8

3 different names of drugs

Chemical name (N- (4-hydroxphenyl))
Generic name (Acetaminophen)
Trade/brand/proprietary name (Tylenol)

9

Study of drugs in living
Medications can be very helpful but can also cause serious harm to patients
The technologist should understand thoroughly any medication before giving it to a patient

Pharmacology

10

Drugs

Pharmaco

11

What happens when two things meet and interact

Dynamics

12

Study of how the effects of a drug are manifested

Pharmacodynamics

13

Treatment or therapy

Therapeutics

14

Use of drugs to prevent and treat diseases

Pharmacotherapeutics

15

Mechanisms of bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drug; movement of drug throughout the body

Pharmacokinetics

16

2 administration routes

Local medication
Systemic medication

17

Medication usually administered at a specific site and are injected into the tissues only in that particular area

Local medication

18

Medications that produce a wide variety of effects to the patients and usually used before the procedure begins, at times during the procedure and often in emergent situations to alleviate a problem

Systemic medication

19

Application of drug directly onto the skin or mucous membrane
Drug is diffuse through the skin or membrane and absorbed into the bloodstream

Local-topical route

20

6 topical routes

Astringent
Antiseptic or bacteriostatic
Emollient
Cleansing
Anesthetic
Antihistamine

21

Topical route that counteracts inflammatory effects, decrease secretions

Astringent

22

Topical route that inhibits growth of development of microorganisms

Antiseptic or bacteriostatic

23

Topical route that soothes and has a softening effect, overcomes dryness

Emollient

24

Topical route that removes dirt and secretion

Cleansing

25

Topical route that removes the sensation of pain

Anesthetic

26

Topical route that calms the manifestations caused by allergic reactions

Antihistamine

27

Most common method of drug administration
Safest, most economical and most convenient way of giving medication

Systemic-oral route

28

Administration is performed by placing the drug under the tongue for dissolution and absorption

Sublingual route

29

Tablet is held in the mouth in the pocket between the gums and cheek for local dissolution and absorption
Lorazepam (Ativan) can be used in this form

Buccal route

30

Safe method of giving drugs when the oral method is unsuitable, as when the patient is a small child or unconscious

Rectal route

31

To be administered by injection
Anything not by the digestive system

Parenteral route

32

4 most common methods by which drugs are administered parenterally

Intradermal
Subcutaneous
Intramuscular
Intravenous

33

Parenteral method where drugs are administered between the layers of the skin
Injection made in the upper layers of the skin almost parallel to the skin surface
Amount of drug given is small and absorption is slow
Mostly used in testing for allergies
Usually on the medial surface of the forearm or skin of the back

Intradermal method (ID)

34

Parenteral method where drugs are administered beneath the skin, yet above the muscle
Angle of insertion about 45-60 degrees
Done on the fat pads of the abdomen, outer surface of the upper anterior surface of the thigh or occasionally the lower abdominal surface
When giving these drugs the technologist should slightly withdraw the plunger of the syringe before injecting the drug to make sure that a blood vessel has not been entered; if blood is seen, then it might be in a vein which could be extremely dangerous
Massage the area of injection to help increase rate of absorption

Subcutaneous method (SC)

35

Parenteral method where drugs are administered in the muscle when a drug is too irritating to be given subcutaneously
Larger doses can be given by this injection (up to 5 mL); larger than some other routes

Intramuscular method (IM)

36

Parenteral method where drugs are administered in the vein, diret injection into a vein
Most common; most emergency drugs are pushed IV, quickest route because most patients already have IV in place

Intravenous

37

Medication inserted into or occurring in the space under the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord, never done by technologist

Intrathecal

38

4 drugs that may be given intramuscularly

Aqueous solution
Aqueous suspension
Oily solution
Oily suspension

39

Form a drug supply in the tissue that results in slow, gradual absorption, not clear and don't dissolve

Suspensions

40

Absorbed faster from the tissue than suspensions, clear and dissolve

Solutions

41

2 disadvantages of oils

Patients are usually sensitive to the oil
The oil isn't usually absorbed

42

4 large vulnerable things that affect intramuscular site criteria

Nerves
Blood vessels
Bone
Scars, bruises and swollen areas from previous injection sites

43

3 areas for intramuscular injections

Musculature of gluteal region of the lower back (love handle)
Deltoid area
Anterolateral thigh

44

5 common IV injection sites of the hand

Digital dorsal
Dorsal metacarpal
Dorsal network
Cephalic
Basilic

45

2 most common IV injection sites for long term use in the hand

Cephalic
Basilic

46

Vein on thumb/radial side

Cephalic

47

Vein on ulnar side

Basilic

48

Last resort vein on hand for IV injection site because it is so small
Probably don't want to use automatic injector or slow down flow rate because vein could blow

Digital dorsal

49

6 areas of the antecubital space where you will normally inject contrast

Cephalic
Median cubital
Accessory cephalic
Basilic (5th digit side)
Cephalic (thumb side)
Med. antebrachial

50

Anterior recess of elbow where veins are located

Antecubital space

51

Most common IV injection site

Median cubital

52

6 rights of drug administration

Right patient
Right drug
Right amount/dosage
Right time
Right route
Right documentation

53

Set of infection control procedures

Standard precautions

54

7 complications of IV

Dislodged catheter
Thrombosis
Phlebitis
Catheter occlusion
Extravasation
Vasovagal reaction
Damage to nerve or tendons

55

Possible infiltration of medication, tell patient to keep arm still

Dislodged catheter

56

IV flow will stop because of an injury to the vein wall
Can get small blood clot and medication won't go in

Thrombosis

57

Backflow of blood in line, line clamped too long

Catheter occlusion

58

Catheter dislodged and swelling into arm from medication, contrast outside of vein

Extravasation

59

Anxiety, sweating, fainting or dizziness

Vasovagal reaction

60

Improper techniques can cause this
Extreme pain, feels like an electrical shock

Damage to nerves or tendons

61

4 systemic allergic reactions/complications

Allergic reaction
Infection
Air embolism: empty bag or bottle, air in line; can result in respiratory distress
- Circulatory overload: flow rate too rapid, can cause increased blood pressure & discomfort

62

Urticaria, wheezing, cardiac arrest, itching

Anaphylactic symptoms

63

Hives

Uticaria

64

Can be caused by poor aseptic technique, catheter left in place too long; usually causes malaise

Infection

65

Drowsiness

Malaise

66

Can be caused by empty bag or bottle, air in line; can result in respiratory distress

Air embolism

67

Fow rate too rapid, can cause increased blood pressure and discomfort

Circulatory overload

68

Administered to decrease the activity of the central nervous system
Treat anxiety, acute stress reactions, panic attacks and sleep disorders
Also referred to as depressants, benzodiazepines and tranquilizers

Sedatives

69

Drugs that act as a central nervous system depressants and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects from mild sedation to total anesthesia
Used to treat insomnia, anxiety and seizure disorders
Ex: thiopental, methohexital and phenobarbital

Barbiturates

70

Barbiturate mostly used in surgical suite to induce full anesthesia, rectally
Can also be used rectally for pediatric conscious sedation before MRI studies

Thiopental

71

Barbiturate used in brief procedures, rectally
Not good choice for procedures requiring more than 5 min of sedation but good for CT exams
Extremely rapid in onset and very short duration

Methohexital

72

Barbiturate orally given to an adult patient the night before and morning of scheduled exam to keep patient calm

Phenobarbital

73

Type of medication known as tranquilizers
Cause muscle relaxation, anti anxiety, anticonvulsants and sedative-hypnotic activities
Ex: Valium, Xanax and Midazolam
Patients may experience “hangover” type of effect

Benzodiazepines

74

Most widely used benzodiazepine
Shown to decrease anxiety and improve the outcome of MRI studies by decreasing motion artifact
Given to pediatric patients rectally or intranasally about 15 min prior to exam
Quick onset and short duration of action

Midazolam

75

Stimulate the CNS receptors to decrease pain perception
Adverse reactions: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches, lightheadedness, constipation

Opiate analgesics

76

5 cardiac medications

Antiarrhythmic
Antihypertensive
Heart failure medication
Diuretics
Lipid lowering medications

77

Affect the electrical conduction (movement of electrically charged particles) of the myocardium
Goal is to suppress excess electrical conduction within the cardiac system and thus decrease arrhythmia production (irregular heartbeat)
Ex: Lidocaine and Digoxin

Antiarrhythmic

78

Lower blood pressure and decreases amount of work for heart
Ex: Clonidine and Hydralazine
Patients with severe hypertension (high bp) will require more than one of these

Antihypertensive

79

Muscle of the heart

Myocardium

80

Usually increase the contractile force of the heart
Basically it’s not pumping very strong, too low of BP
Ex to increase BP: Digoxin, Domamine and Epinephrine (used in radiology)

Heart failure medication

81

Decrease intravascular pressure
Frequently called “water pills"
Designed to eliminate excess fluid and sodium from the bloodstream, thus decreasing overall pressure within vessels
Can cause dehydration, imp to watch for this with patients receiving contrast because since they’re dehydrated potentially the contrast won’t be eliminated as fast
Ex: Metalozone and Hydrochlorothizide

Diuretics

82

Lower serum cholesterol
Patients usually have high cholesterol with probably a lot of of plaque; if plaque dislodges from vessel it can cause en embolism or blood clot
Ex: Niacin and Lovastatin

Lipid lowering medication

83

3 blood altering medication

Anticoagulants
Antiplatelet
Thrombolytic

84

“Blood thinners”, used to stop clot formation
Used in patients who have either a history of blood clot formation or potential to develop blood clots
Patient wtih blood clot = area usually warm to touch, swollen and red
Ex: Heparin, Warfarin and Coumadin

Anticoagulants

85

Stop platelet formation
Used to treat heart disease
For patients who have experience an acute ischemic event (decrease in blood supply) to either their heart or brain in the past (ex: Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) - mini stroke)
Ex: Aspirin

Antiplatelet

86

Clot busters used to actively break up newly formed clot, such as found in patients wtih an acute stroke
These patients are at high risk for bleeding internally/externally, so starting an IV shouldn’t be done without physician supervision, because it thins out blood
Ex: Urokinase

Thrombolytic

87

Relieve pain and treat headaches, arthritis, muscle aches, etc; ex: Tylenol

Analgesics

88

4 analgesics

Narcotics
Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
Muscle relaxants
Acetaminophen

89

Meds that stimulate CNS receptors
Generally highly controlled by the local and federal enforcement agencies to prevent misuse in the community, unfortunately a lot of people sell these drugs they were prescribed
Respiratory arrest (stop breathing) can occur at too high dose
Ex: Fentanyl & Hydrocodone

Narcotics

90

Used to treat pain associated with inflammation such as arthritis, muscle tears, broken bones, etc
Long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to stomach ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding
Ex: Ibuprofen and Naproxen

Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)

91

Treat muscle spasms
Usually people with whiplash or spinal cord injuries
Can make you sleepy
Ex: Diazepam, Lorazepam and Demerol

Muscle relaxants

92

Most common analgesic in use today
Contained in almost all pain medication combonations
Low potency pain reliever
Long term use of high doses can cause renal and cardiac damage

Acetaminophen

93

Prohibit histamine release in an allergic reaction to relieve adverse effects such as sneezing, itching, inflammation and respiratory distress
Also used for common allergies
Ex: Benadryl, Claritin, Zyrtec

Antihistamines

94

2 endocrine medications

Antidiabetic
Thyroid

95

Aid in maintaining the balance between blood sugar and tissue sugar
Some patients are termed insulin dependent because they have little or no circulating endogenous (within the body) insulin
When injecting contrast you should have the patient suspend these medications for 48 hours after injection or it can hurt kidney function
Ex: Glipizide, Metformin and Glucophage

Antidiabetic

96

Used to treat hypothyroidism that’s either primary because of lack of endogenous thyroid production or secondary to removal of the thyroid gland
Ex: Thyroxine
For hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) you would take an anti-thyroid medication like methimazole

Thyroid

97

Underactive thyroid, doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone

Hypothyroidism

98

4 central nervous medications

Anti-seizure
Antipsychotic
Antidepressants
Antianxiety

99

Medications used to prevent and treat seizure disorders
Convulsions result from decrease in O2 and blood flow to brain
Goal is to stop the seizure activity and prolong the interval between each seizure event
Ex: Diazepam, Lorazepam and Clonazepam

Anti-seizure

100

Used to treat psychotic episodes and disorders such as schizophrenia, hallucinations, antisocial behavior, etc
Ex: Clozapine and Loxapine

Antipsychotic

101

Used to treat clinical depression that results from neurotransmitter deficiencies
Take very seriously if patients talk to you about suicide
Ex: Nortiptyline and Amitriptyline

Antidepressants

102

Used for treating acute and chronic anxiety states
In radiology field, you will see this with patients that require a sedative for ex: claustrophobia (especially in MRI)
Ex: Diazepam and Clonazepam

Antianxiety

103

3 anti-infective agents

Antibiotics
Antifungals
Antivirals

104

Therapeutic agents used to kill or suppress pathologic microorganisms responsible for causing infectious disease
Will kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
Ex: Penicillin

Antibiotics

105

Used to kill fungal organisms
For treating athletes foot, yeast infection, etc
Ex: Nystatin

Antifungals

106

Used for treating viral infections
Ex: influenza

Antivirals

107

Drug that’s effective against vomiting and nausea; used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anesthetics and chemo directed against cancer

Antiemtetics

108

Medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety

Anxiolytics

109

Drug used to reduce the effect of laryngospasm
Sometimes given as a preoperative agent to reduce salivation and excessive secretions in the respiratory tract
Can prevent cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension and bradycardia

Atropine

110

Inflammation of the vein, swollen vein

Phlebitis