Flashcards in CH 58 ex: 5 Deck (27):
Fetal facial evaluation is not routinely included in a basic fetal scan, but when there is a _____ history of craniofacial malformation or when another _____ anomaly is found, the face should be screened for a coexisting facial malformation.
Many fetuses with a facial defect also have ________ abnormalities.
The fetal forehead (frontal bone) appears as a ______ surface with differentiation of the nose, lips, and chin seen anteriorly.
Anterior cephaloceles may arise from the frontal bone or midface causing widely spaced orbits, a condition called _____.
Premature closure of any or all six of the cranial sutures, a condition known as _____, causes the fetal cranium to become abnormally shaped.
Cloverleaf skull or ____ appears as an unusually misshapen skull with a cloverleaf appearance in the anterior view.
Cloverleaf skull has been associated with numerous skeletal dysplasia, most notably ______ and _______.
________ (premature closure of the metopic suture) may cause the forehead to have an elongated (tall) appearance in the sagittal plane and to appear triangular in the axial plane.
______ may be observed in a fetus with a lemon-shaped skull (from spina bifida) or with skeletal dysplasias.
Underdevelopment of the middle structures of the face is ___ or ___ hypoplasia with depressed or absent nasal bridge.
Midface hypoplasia may be seen in fetuses with chromosome anomalies such as trisomy ___, craniosynostosis syndromes such as Aspert's syndrome, or limb and skeletal abnormalities such as achondroplasia, chondrodysplasia punctata, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia , and others.
A median-cleft face syndrome consisting of a range of midline facial defects involving the eyes, forehead, and nose is ____.
The optimum gestational age for the measurement of fetal NT is ___ weeks' gestation to ___ weeks ____ days' gestation.
Fetal crown-rump length should be within range of ___ mm to ___ mm.
Tongue protrusion may suggest macroglossia (enlarged tongue), a condition found in _____-______ syndrome (congenital overgrowth of tissues).
Mandibular length or AP diameter, is assessed by measuring from the ____ to _____.
Mandibular length, or AP diameter, is assessed by measuring from the _____ of the mandible to the _____ of the lateral width line.
Micrognathia is associated with many conditions that can be subdivided into three groups of anomalies: ______ anomalies, ____ dysplasias, and primary ______ disorders.
The sonographer must document the presence of both eyes and must assess the overall size of the eyes to exclude ______ (small eyes) and _____ (absent eyes).
A condition characterized by decreased distance between the orbits is ______ .
____ is characterized by abnormally widely spaced orbits.
The contour of the nose, upper and lower lips, and chin is observed in a(n) _____ plane.
Evaluation of the nasal triad should assess _____, ______, and _______.
nasal septum integrity
continuity of upper lip to exclude symmetry cleft lip & palate
____ lip with or without cleft palate represents the most common congenital anomaly of the face.
Defects range from clefting of the lip alone to involvement of the ____ & _____ palate, which may extend into the nose and in rare cases to the inferior border of the orbit.
Isolated cleft lip may occur as a unilateral or bilateral defect, and when unilateral, it commonly originates on the ___ side of the face.