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Flashcards in CH 58 ex: 5 Deck (27):
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Fetal facial evaluation is not routinely included in a basic fetal scan, but when there is a _____ history of craniofacial malformation or when another _____ anomaly is found, the face should be screened for a coexisting facial malformation.

family
congenital

1

Many fetuses with a facial defect also have ________ abnormalities.

chromosomal

2

The fetal forehead (frontal bone) appears as a ______ surface with differentiation of the nose, lips, and chin seen anteriorly.

curvilinear

3

Anterior cephaloceles may arise from the frontal bone or midface causing widely spaced orbits, a condition called _____.

Hypertolerism

4

Premature closure of any or all six of the cranial sutures, a condition known as _____, causes the fetal cranium to become abnormally shaped.

craniosynostosis

5

Cloverleaf skull or ____ appears as an unusually misshapen skull with a cloverleaf appearance in the anterior view.

Kleeblattschadel

6

Cloverleaf skull has been associated with numerous skeletal dysplasia, most notably ______ and _______.

Thanatophoric dysplasia
ventriculomegaly

7

________ (premature closure of the metopic suture) may cause the forehead to have an elongated (tall) appearance in the sagittal plane and to appear triangular in the axial plane.

Trigonocephaly

8

______ may be observed in a fetus with a lemon-shaped skull (from spina bifida) or with skeletal dysplasias.

Frontal bossing

9

Underdevelopment of the middle structures of the face is ___ or ___ hypoplasia with depressed or absent nasal bridge.

midface
maxillary

10

Midface hypoplasia may be seen in fetuses with chromosome anomalies such as trisomy ___, craniosynostosis syndromes such as Aspert's syndrome, or limb and skeletal abnormalities such as achondroplasia, chondrodysplasia punctata, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia , and others.

21

11

A median-cleft face syndrome consisting of a range of midline facial defects involving the eyes, forehead, and nose is ____.

Frontonasal dysplasia

12

The optimum gestational age for the measurement of fetal NT is ___ weeks' gestation to ___ weeks ____ days' gestation.

11
13
6

13

Fetal crown-rump length should be within range of ___ mm to ___ mm.

45
84

14

Tongue protrusion may suggest macroglossia (enlarged tongue), a condition found in _____-______ syndrome (congenital overgrowth of tissues).

Beckwith-Wiedemann

15

Mandibular length or AP diameter, is assessed by measuring from the ____ to _____.

rami
rami

16

Mandibular length, or AP diameter, is assessed by measuring from the _____ of the mandible to the _____ of the lateral width line.

Mentum
bisection

17

Micrognathia is associated with many conditions that can be subdivided into three groups of anomalies: ______ anomalies, ____ dysplasias, and primary ______ disorders.

Chromosomal
skeletal
mandibular

18

The sonographer must document the presence of both eyes and must assess the overall size of the eyes to exclude ______ (small eyes) and _____ (absent eyes).

microphthalmia
anopthalmia

19

A condition characterized by decreased distance between the orbits is ______ .

hypotelorism

20

____ is characterized by abnormally widely spaced orbits.

hypertolerism

21

The contour of the nose, upper and lower lips, and chin is observed in a(n) _____ plane.

profile

22

Evaluation of the nasal triad should assess _____, ______, and _______.

nostril
nasal septum integrity
continuity of upper lip to exclude symmetry cleft lip & palate

23

____ lip with or without cleft palate represents the most common congenital anomaly of the face.

Cleft

24

Defects range from clefting of the lip alone to involvement of the ____ & _____ palate, which may extend into the nose and in rare cases to the inferior border of the orbit.

hard
soft

25

Isolated cleft lip may occur as a unilateral or bilateral defect, and when unilateral, it commonly originates on the ___ side of the face.

left

26

In fetuses with epignathus, ______ may be impaired, resulting in hydraminos.

swallowing