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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Deck (15):

Motor Learning

Motor learning is a function of: the movement to be learned; the learner; and the conditions under which the learning takes place.
Involved motor AND perception-cognition-action processes


Characteristics of Motor Learning

Learning DOES NOT EQUAL Performance
Performance is not a perfect index of motor learning
Motor learning produces reliable performance changes
Motor learning may not lead to performance improvement


Adam's Closed Loop Theory

Relies heavily on feedback to guide learning
Theory assumed the existence of two states:
-the memory trace (selects and initiates a plan of action
-the perpetual trace (compares the movement in progress with a correct memory of the movement)

The strengthening of the two memory states was considered essential for learning


Adam's Closed Loop Theory Weaknesses

Predictions were tested using only slow, linear positioning movements
Can't account for deafferentation studies
Storage problem (too many action plans)
Novelty problem (does not explain the ability to perform new skills)


Schema Theory (Schmidt)

GMP: Abstract representation of movement- used to guide the planning and execution of a broad variety of movements
Invariant: order of events, relative timing, relative force.
Variant: parameter (absolute time, absolute force, limbs) -SCHEMATA

Recall Schema: involved in the production of movement
Response recognition schema: evaluate correctness


Schema Theory Weaknesses

Once abstracted, certain rules or principles of operation could be developed and used to guide action
Cannot explain the development of new patterns of coordination
Unable to account for spontaneous compensations to perturbations or changes that occur in the environment during a movement
Overemphasizes the role of cognitive processes


Ecological Theories of Perception and Action

The idea that learners seek to discover the lawful properties of the environment is central
Emphasize the changing relationship between the perception and the action environment
The end product of learning is not a memory-based representation of the action


Ecological Theory Weakness

According to Schmidt, ecological theorists has misinterpreted the role of the GMP: it is more flexible than described
Cognitive processing and memory representations appear to be important to the learning of rule-based actions


How does Motor Learning Really Occur?

Motor programming and dynamic system models may operate at different times or in different context during motor learning


Fitt's 3 Stage Model

1. Cognitive Phase: understand the task
2. Associative Phase: learner begins to understand how the various components of a task are interrelated
3. Autonomous Phase: performance has become automatized and attention can be directed elsewhere


A Neo Bersteinian Perspective

1. Novice: Learner attempts to simplify the movement problem by "freezing out" a portion of the available degrees-of-freedom
2. Advanced: Learner begins to reinstate and/or release degrees-of-freedom. Dynamics of the action become more apparent to the learner.
3. Expert: Learner continues to release and reorganize degrees of freedom. Also learns to exploit additional passive forces that are external to him/her.


Gentile's Two Stage Model

1. Getting the idea of the movement: learner must identify and selectively attend to the regulatory conditions of the task
2. Fixation/Diversification: Objective for the learner becomes one of matching the newly acquired movement pattern to the environment in which it will be performed


Readiness for Learning

Developmental Readiness:
Emotional readiness
Intellectual readiness
Capabilities: prerequisites knowledge, skills, and experiences
Previous experiences
Physical characteristics


Neurological Changes with Learning

Cortical representations
Brain chemistry
Morphological changes (ex. synaptic connections between neurons and number of brain cells)


Learning Styles

Various ways in which people acquire new motor skills and knowledge
Reissman's (1977) Three Learner Styles