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Flashcards in Ch 6 Paediatric emergencies Deck (15)
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Assessement of seriously ill child (ABC)

A - airways; check if patent, use manoeuvres - head tilt, jaw thrust, use adjuncts e.g. LMA
B - breathing; listen to lungs, give 100% high flow oxygen
C - circulation; check peripheral & central cyanosis, cap refil, pulses, BP. Insert 2 large bore cannulae, take blood and start on 0.9% saline 20ml/kg up to 60 ml/kg > inotropes if non-responsive


3 categories of shock

Hypovolaemic - dehydration, DKA, blood loss, gastroenteritis
Cardiogenic - arrythmias, HF
Fluid redistribution - septicaemia, anaphylaxis


Early features of shock (4)

these are compensatory mechs: tachypnoea, tachycardia, cool peripheries, sunken eyes/fontanelle, reduced skin turgor, oliguria


Late features of shock (4)

Decompensated - Kussmaul breathing (acidotic), bradycardia, hypotension, confusion, anuria


Shock management (2)

IV saline (0.9%), blood if trauma


Definition & features (6) of septicaemia

D - bacterial infection in blood (most common meningoccoccal)
F - fever, infection history, lethargy, poor feeding, tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypotension, purpuric rash, shock


Ix (3) & management (3) of septicaemia

Ix - U&E, FBC, CRP, blood gas, blood cultures
Management - ABs, fluids, inotropic support, FFP for bleeding due to DIC


Coma assessment - AVPU

A - alert
V - responds to voice
P - responds to pain
U - unresponsive


Management of raised ICP (4)

treat with head positioned midline
Tilt head end of bed by 30 degrees
Fluids (isotonic) + osmotic diuretics e.g. mannitol
maintain normothermia & normal BP
intubate/ventilate if GCS


Define status epilepticus

Seizures lasting > 30 min
Or seizures occuring so frequently that dont retain consciousness between them


Management of status epilepticus (6)

1st resusc, then try to stop seizure asap:
check blood glucose if Lorazepam (0.1mg/kg)
10 min later if no response > IV phenytoin (20mg/kg over 20 min) +/- PR paraldehyde (0.4ml/kg)
If no response in 20 min transfer to PICU + induction with thiopental + mechanical ventilation


Anaphylaxis mangement (6)

(mostly due to food allergies)
IM/IV adrenaline (if 12 give 500)
IM/IV hydrocortisone + chlorphenamine + high flow O2 + IV crystalloids (20ml/kg)


SIDS defintion

suddent & unexpected death in infant for which no adequate cause is found after thorough post-mortem examination, most commonly occuring 2-4 months of age


SIDS RFs in terms of: infant (3), parental (5), environmental (2)

Infant - low BW, male, age 1-6 months
parental - low income, high parity, single young mother, smoker mother, overcrowded house
environmental - sleeping prone, overheating, bottle feeding


SIDS prevention (3)

infants sleep on back
dont smoke during pregnancy
avoid overheating