Flashcards in Ch. 63 EX: 5 & 6 Deck (29):
The fetal kidneys and bladder may be seen on ultrasound by ____ weeks' gestation.
At this time period, the kidneys appear as bilateral ____ structures in the paravertebral regions.
By the ____ weeks, it is possible to distinguish the renal cortex from the medulla, to ouline the renal capsule clearly, and to see a central echogenic area in the renal sinus region.
The upper limit of normal for the renal pelves is ____ mm up to 33 weeks' gestation and ____ mm fromm 33 weeks' gestation until term.
If the bladder appears too large, it should be evaluated again at the end of the study ( assuming the examination takes at least ____ minutes) to see if normal emptying has occurred.
45 to 60 minutes
When obstruction occurs at the level of the urethra, the bladder wall becomes ____.
Dilatation of the posterior _____ is highly suggestive of an obstructive process, such as posterior urethral valve symdrome, known as the "keyhole" sighn on sonography because the dilated bladder has the shape of a keyhole superior to the obstructed urethra.
It is possible to have unilateral renal agensis, but the contralateral kidney is usually quite ____ to compensate for the abnormality.
The ____ kidney shows a large central cyst with multiple small peripheral cysts that appear as a pelviureteric junction obstruction; however, these cysts do no communicate with one another, as is seen with hydronephrosis.
When the kidneys appear enlarged and echogenic, the sonographer should think of infantile ____ disease (with oligohydramnios).
Dilatation of the renal collection system suggests either _____ or ____.
Hydronephrosis or Reflux
Pelviureteric junction obstruction shows dilatation of the renal ____, whereas ureteric dilatation suggests either a ____ junction obstruction or reflux.
When the hydronephrosis is ____ the possibility of bladder outlet obstruction should be considered.
A critical marker in the ssessment of renal function is ____ ____.
The fetal kidneys begin to excrete urine after the ____th week but do no become the major contributor of fetal urine (henice, amniotic fluid volume) until ____ to____ weeks of pregnancy.
11th, 14 to 16 weeks
It usually takes at least ____ minutes to fill and empty the fetal bladder.
Renal agenesis and infantile polycystic kidney disease are fetal conditions ____ with life.
In renal agenesis, the ____ glands may be large and may mimic the kidneys.
____ kidneys should be consiered when the kidneys are not in their normal retroperitoneal location.
____ syndrome is characterized by renal agenesis, oligohydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, abnormal facies, and malformed hands and feet.
Potter's (Harry Potter)
Infantile polycystic kidney disease (IPKD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the fetal ____ and ____.
Kidneys and Liver
In the most severe cases of IPKD, renal failure occurs with ____ and an ____ urinary bladder.
Oligohydramnios and an Absent
Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is the most common form of renal ____disease in childhood and represents one of the most common abdominal masses in the neonate.
Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is composed of multiple, smooth-walled, nonfunctioning, ____ cysts of variable size and number.
In autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease, the fetal kidneys appear ____and ____, and rarely, cysts may be observed prenatally.
Large and Echogenic
In obstructive cystic dysplasia, renal ____ occurs 2ndary to obstruction in the first or early second trimester of pregnancy.
The urinary tract may be obstructed at the junction of the ureter entering the renal pelvis (_____ junction) or at the junction of the ureter where it enters the bladder (____ junction) or at the me level of the urethra (____)
Ureteropelvic, Ureterovesical, Megacystis
If the obstruction is ____, a multicystic kidney may develop.