Ch 7 - DNA & Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 7 - DNA & Protein Synthesis Deck (40):
0

Every cell in ur body has-

Deoxyribonucleic acid

--DNA

1

DNA can....

Duplicate itself by, cell division or mitosis

2

Blueprint of ur body is-

Carries info needed for-

-DNA

-The repair of worn out parts and building of new ones.

3

Blueprint message carried to different organelles of the cell by..

Chemical messages

4

Approx. base pairs of DNA

3 billion pairs

5

Unless you are an identical twin, your DNA is

One of a kind

6

Mutations occur when.....

DNA within a chromosome is altered.

7

Sickle cell anemia

-genetic mutation
Hard time carrying o2 but good for fighting malaria

8

Chromosomes are made up of

protein and nucleic acids

9

20 different amino acids that

Produce proteins- an almost infinite number of proteins maybe developed

10

Nucleic acids

Large molecules,
Made up of nucleotides

11

Nucleotides are made up of...

Phosphates, sugar molecule, and 1 of 4 different nitrogen bases.

12

Using these 4 different nitrogen bases in different sequences

Code for al the info needed to develop all the protein and amino acid sequences

13

Watson and crick

-double helix DNA
~>determined by use of x-ray diffraction

14

4 nitrogen bases

Thymine - T
Guanine - G
Cytosine - C
Adenine -A

15

Replication

DNA copy's itself
-during S-phase of interphase

16

Semi conservative replication

-When original DNA strand splits.
-Nucleotides fill remaining haves of DNA to make 2 identical strands.

17

The original half is called....

The new ones is called....

Template

Complementary strand

18

All cells have enzymes

(endonucleases) -natural genetic scissors

19

Bacteria have special endonucleases called

Restriction enzymes -used in the lab genetic scissors

There are over 200 diff restriction enzymes

20

The Ligase enzyme is....

A type of glue that can repair the damage done to DNA by restriction enzymes

21

Recombinant DNA

From one species to another (glow in the dark monkey)

22

Proteins are produced by

The ribosomes
-20 diff amino acids

23

Made up of proteins

Cell membranes
Hair
Repair
Growth
Maintenance
Enzymes
Antibodies
Hormones

24

The order of DNA bases ultimately determines

The order that amino acids are arranged

25

The role of DNA in protein synthesis:

All living organisms have A,T,C,G

-proteins are generated from the order of amino acids which is determined by order of DNA bases.

26

Oncogenes:

Gean that make you more Likely to get cancer.

Cancer cells- often display nitrogen base substitution
-arise cause of mutations that alter DNA

27

Genome (gene pool)

All of the genes that occur in a population

28

Hardy & Weinberg suggest
The gene pool or allel frequency would remain the same for many generations if there were these 5 constants-

Large populations
Random mating
No mutations
No migrations
Equal viability

This is not hardly possible. So the gene pool will change

29

p

The frequency of the do infant allele

30

q

He frequency of the recessive allele

31

p2

Homozygous dominant genotype

32

2pq

Heterozygous genotype

33

q2

Homozygous recessive genotype

34

Allele frequency

How many times an allele "a" shows up in a population)

35

Genotypic frequency

He amount of times a genotype shows up in a population

36

Three factors that bring about evolutionary change are:

1) mutations
2) gene flow
3) genetic drift

37

Mutations

Randomly occurring events which effect the genetics of an individual or a population

38

Gene flow

(Migration) - organisms move. Moving their genetics either into or out of a population.

39

Genetic drift

(Genetics of a population changes due to chance)

1) founder effect-new population arises due to geographic isolation

2) bottleneck effect-new population arises due to a disaster or loss of #'s