Ch. 7 Political Economy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7 Political Economy Deck (30):
1

Which of the following is NOT true regarding commodities?

A commodity doesn't have value

2

Purchasing products that are related to nature does what NEGATIVE thing to nature?

Commodifies nature

3

The _______ perspective is mostly concerned with identifying how power relationships and economic systems produce environmental and social conditions.

Political economy

4

Overaccumulation leads to what two things?

Overproduction and underconsumption

5

_______ describes how capitalism undermines itself by undermining the environmental conditions necessary for its own perpetuation.

The second contradiction of capitalism

6

Which of the following statements (in the memo written by Lawrence Summers) was NOT used to justify the export of polluting industries to poorer countries?

Poor countries have more land to redistribute the pollution

7

Marx’s concepts of all of the following things, EXCEPT what, explain how the economy produces environmental problems.

Nature

8

Which of the following is NOT a problem with the political economy perspective?

None of the other choices: These are all problems with the political economy perspective.

9

Which of the following is NOT a method for capitalists to maintain accumulation of wealth?

Invoke pay increases for laborers

10

Most environmental activists are men.

False

11

Environmental justice is primarily concerned with the uneven distribution of environmental “bads.”

True

12

The Enclosure Laws were an example of _______.

Primitive accumulation

13

Moving a factory from Mexico to Vietnam is an example of the spatial fix.

True

14

Hazardous materials are placed in minority and low-income neighborhoods because these groups often have less power to protest.

True

15

The enclosure and privatization of previously communal resources is known as:

Primitive accumulation

16

Marx would agree with which of the following statements about modern capitalism and environmental problems?

Environmental problems are already built into the economy that causes them

17

Which of the following would NOT be a response to underconsumption?

Federal regulations to encourage saving

18

According to Marx, problems such as overaccumulation, overproduction, and underconsumption are anomalies in capitalism and suggest that the system is not functioning properly.

False

19

According to Marx, when does a “contradiction” occur?

When capital becomes over-concentrated

20

In order to create _______ in a capitalist economy, workers and the environment must be undervalued.

Surplus value

21

Many historians and economists view the Enclosure Laws in England in the 1780s and 1820s as a significant step toward modern capitalism.

True

22

When people speak of the”Top 1%”, they are referring to a term in economics known as:

Overaccumulation

23

Development is always uneven.

True

24

According to social reproduction, unhealthy workers are more productive workers.

True

25

Which current policy promotes the global trade of pollution?

Cap and trade

26

When Marx writes about “accumulation”, what is he referring to?

Accumulation of capital

27

Raw materials, used to produce commodities, are called what?

Conditions of production

28

_______ are the raw materials needed to produce things, such as wood, iron, and oil.

The conditions of production

29

Why do we export millions of tons of hazardous waste to poorer countries each year?

Environmental regulations are more lax in poorer countries, disposal costs are less in poorer countries, and environmental regulations are often not enforced in poorer countries

30

Prior to capitalism, goods were sold at their exchange rate.

True