Ch. 8: Reproductive Function Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Ch. 8: Reproductive Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 8: Reproductive Function Deck (130):
1

stores sperm

epididymides

2

conduct sperm to the urethra

vans deferens

3

produce seminal fluid that nourishes sperm

sex accessory glands

4

provides proper temperature for the testes

scrotum

5

the inner mucosal lining of the uterus which undergoes hormonal changes to facilitate and maintain pregnancy

endometrium

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the middle layer of the uterus which is made up of smooth muscle and a vascular system

myometrium

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the outer serous layer of the uterus that covers all of the fundus and part of the corpus, but none of the cervix

perimetrium

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inability to contribute to reproduction

infertility

9

what are male problems that can cause infertility?

decreased sperm or sperm abnormalities, hormone deviations, physical impediments

10

what are female problems that cause infertility?

ovulation dysfunction, hormone deviations, physical obstructions (usually in the Fallopian tubes), severe reproductive tract infections

11

anatomical defect in which the urethral meatus occurs on the dorsal surface of the penis and may extend the entire length of the penis in males and where the urethral meatus may be placed in the clitoris in females

epispadias

12

what problems is epispadias likely to cause?

urinary tract infections, urination problems (usually in men), sexual dysfunction (usually in women)

13

why may epispadias cause reproductive problems in men?

they may have trouble propelling the sperm when they ejaculate

14

condition in which the urethral meatus is on the ventral surface of the penis instead of the end. the opening can extend the length of the penis. males with this condition may have chordee

hypospadias

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downward curvature of the penis that occurs with hypospadias and is most apparent when the patient has an erection

chordee. can be painful and need surgical correction

16

occurs when the foreskin cannot be retracted from the glans penis

phimosis

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when is phimosis normal?

during the first three years of age, but the foreskin should become retractable as the child grows

18

what things can lead to phimosis?

poor hygiene, infections, inflammation, they could be born with a defect in which the skin is just too tight

19

what complications can arise because of phimosis?

could cover the urethral meatus and cause a urinary obstruction, and cause a lot of pain

20

when the foreskin is retracted and cannot be returned over the glans penis

paraphimosis

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what occurs when the foreskin cannot be returned to the glans penis?

the penis becomes constricted and the glans becomes edematous. lack of blood flow can lead to gangrene, making it a medical emergency

22

prolonged, painful erection that is not the result of sexual stimulation

priapism

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what are the two things that priapism can result from?

from too much blood shunting within the corpus cavernosum (nonischemic or high-flow priapism) or from blood becoming trapped in the penis (ischemic or low-flow priapism)

24

at what ages is priapism most common?

5-10 and 20-50

25

what conditions can priapism occur with?

blood, circulatory, or nervous dysfunctions: sickle cell anemia, leukemia, trauma, tumors, DM, spinal cord injuries, neurologic diseases, medications, alcohol and illicit drugs, poisonous venom

26

fluid accumulation between the layers of the tunica vaginalis or along the spermatic cord that can affect one or both testes

hydrocele

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what are the possible causes of a hydrocele?

it can be congenital or occur in adults due to trauma, infection, or inflammation

28

how long do congenital hydroceles usually last?

usually resolve without treatment in one year

29

are hydroceles usually painful?

no, they are usually painless, but the person complains of a heavy feeling in the scrotum

30

when will the edema of a hydrocele be worse?

at night - dependent edema

31

how can you differentiate between fluid accumulation and a tumor in the testicles?

transillumination. it will transilluminate if it is fluid, but not if it is a solid mass

32

sperm-containing cyst that develops between the testes and epididymis

spermatocele

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what are the manifestations of a spermatocele?

painless, small moveable cyst that will transilluminate and can get larger over time (if it gets large enough it may cause pain by putting pressure on other structures)

34

what are some causes of a spermatocele?

idiopathic, due to a blockage of the duct system, infection, inflammation, trauma

35

dilated vein in the spermatic cord that occurs when the valves of the veins quit working and cause blood to trap

varicocele

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what are the causes of varicoceles?

congenital defects, obstructions, valvular dysfunctions

37

what is the most common reason for low sperm counts in men?

varicoceles

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what are the manifestations of varicoceles?

"bag of worms" feeling of the testicles, scrotal heaviness

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abnormal rotation of the testicles on the spermatic cord that usually occurs in adolescents and young boys

testicular torsion

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what are some causes of testicular torsion?

most frequently caused by trauma but can also occur after strenuous exercise or spontaneously especially in persons whose testicles are not secrured in the scrotum because of a congenital difference

41

what are manifestations of testicular torsion?

sudden, severe testicular pain with or without a predisposing event, scrotal swelling, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, hematospermia, and a testicular mass

42

acute or chronic inflammation of the postate

prostatitis

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what are the causes of prostatitis?

usually caused by a bladder infection in which the bacteria migrate to the prostate. can be caused by anything that triggers the inflammatory process

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who is prostatitis most common in?

young and middle-aged men, and immune compromised states

45

what are the manifestations of prostatitis?

dysuria, difficulty urinating, urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, pain in the abdomen, groin, lower back, perineum, or genitals, painful ejaculation, indications of infection such as fever, chills, and maylgia, recurrent UTIs

46

when does the irregularity of a menstrual cycle occur?

before ovulation. after ovulation, menstration will occur in 14 days

47

complete cessation of the menstrual cycle that occurs around age 52

menopause

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what are the manifestations of menopause?

breast and internal reproductive organs atrophy, decreased vaginal secretions (can lead to painful intercourse), behavioral changes, headaches, insomnia, hot flashes, night sweates, decreased bone density

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absence of menstruation

amenorrhea

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what are the causes of amenorrha?

congenital defects, hypothalmic tumors, stress, sudden weight loss, anorexia, extreme reduction in body fat (because fat stores estrogen), chemotherapy, pregnancy, lactatoin, menopause

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painful menstruation that is so painful that the woman cannot perform her daily activities

dysmenorrhea

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is dysmenorrhea primary or secondary?

it can be primary or secondary to an infection or something

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what are the causes of dysmenorrhea?

idiopathic, reproductive problems, child birth

54

what are bleeding abnormalities usually caused by?

a lack of ovulation

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increased blood flow amount and duration

menorrhagia

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bleeding between menstrual cycles, abnormal and unexpected. happens a lot in perimenopausal women because of abnormalities in hormones

metrorrhagia

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abnormal menstrual cycle, less than 28 days

polymenorrhea

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abnormal menstrual cycle greater than 42 days

oligomenorrhea

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prolapsed bladder in which the bladder protrudes into the anterior wall of the vagina and can cause urinary problems

cystocele

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what do the weakened pelvic muscles that cause cystocele usually result from>

excessive straining

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what are the clinical manifestations of cystocele?

visualization of the bladder from the vaginal opening, feeling of fullness in the pelvis or vagina, stress incontinence, urinary retention frequency and urgency, pain or urine leakage during sexual intercourse

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rectum protrudes into the posterior wall of the vaginal canal and can cause problems with passing stool. may be large enough to bulge through the vaginal canal

rectocele

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what are the clinical manifestations of rectocele

visualization of the rectum from the vaginal opening, feelings of fullness in the pelvis or vagina, difficulty defecating, rectal pressure, bowel incontinence

64

descent of the uterus or cervix into the vagina that results from conditions that stretch or weaken the pelvic support

uterine prolapse

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what are the stages of uterine prolapse?

first degree - the cervix has dropped into the vagina
second degree - the cervix is apparent at the vaginal opening
third degree - the cervix and uterus bulge through the vaginal opening

66

what are the clinical manifestations of uterine prolapse?

usually asymptomatic in its early stages, visualization of the cervix or uterus from the vaginal opening, difficult or painful sexual intercourse, vaginal bleeding, difficulty with urination or defecation

67

produces sperm and male sex steroids

testes

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when the endometrium begins growing in areas outside the uterus. most commonly in the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneum, but can grwo anywhere on the body

endometriosis

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what occurs during endometriosus?

the abnormal endometrial tissue continues to act as it normallly would during menstration even though it is outside the uterus. the blood becomes trapped and irritates surrounding tissues. pain, cysts, scarring, and adhesions develop because of the inflammation. scarring and adhesions often result in infertility

70

what are risk factors for the development of endometriosus?

early onset menstruation, late onset menopause, nulliparity, mentrorrhagia, low BMI, and having a closed hymen

71

when does endometriosus begin developing?

at the onset of menstuation and advances over time. most cases are diagnosed between 25-35 years of age

72

what are the clinical manifestations of endometriosus?

dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, pelvic pain, dyschezia (pain with bowel movements), pain during or after sexual intercourse, infertility

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firm, rubbery growth of the myeometrium

leiomyomas

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most common benign tumor in women

leiomyoma

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when do leiomyas usually grow?

usually grow during the menstruation years in the presence of estrogen and shrink after menopause

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do leiyomas interfere with fertility?

no, but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion and preterm labor slightly. the risk of fertility and pregnancy problems increases as the tumor grows

77

what are the clinical manifestations of leiyomas?

menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, pain in the pelvis, back or legs, urinary frequency and retention, urinary tract infections, constipation, abdominal distention, pain during sexual intercourse, anemia

78

benign, fluid-filled sacs on the ovary that often form during the ovulation process when the egg follicle doesn't release the egg, but instead the fluid stays in the follicle, creating a cyst

ovarian cysts

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when do ovarian cysts cause discomfort?

when they rupture

80

what are some complications of ovarian cysts?

rare, but can lead to hemorrhage, peritonitis, infertility (when the egg does not rupture out, they cannot become pregnant), and amenorrhea.

81

what are the clinical manifestations of ovarian cysts?

could be asymptomatic, pelvic pain and discomfort, abnormal menstrual bleeding, abdominal distention

82

condition in which the ovary enlarges and contains numerous cysts

polycystic ovary syndrome

83

what are the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome?

idiopathic, hormone or endocrine disorders

84

what are the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome?

infertility, amenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, and male-pattern baldness

85

why don't we want women to go more than 3 months without menstruation unless it is purposeful because of drugs?

they are continuing to build up that endometrial lining, but they are not shedding it. this increases their chance of endometrial cancers

86

breast tissue inflammation associated with infection and lactation. usually caused by a staphylococcal or streptococcal bacterium being introduced to the nipple through the breast feeding process, but can also occur in the absence of lactation or breast feeding

mastitis

87

what occurs during mastitis?

the infection usually invades the breast's fatty tissue, triggering an inflammatory response. the edema puts pressure on the milk ducts, causing pain and palpable lumps. the flow of milk may become obstructed and abscesses can develop

88

what are the clinical manifestations of mastitis?

breast tenderness, swelling, redness, and warmth; breast lumps; pain or a burning sensation continuously or while breast feeding; flu-like symptoms; nipple discharge; enlarged nearby axillary nodes

89

an infection of the female reproductive system

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

90

what are PIDs usually caused by?

bacteria ascends through the reproductive tract from the vagina. most commonly from a STI. can be acute or chronic

91

how can bacteria reach the reproductive tract to cause a PID?

ascend from the vagina, breach during childbirth, endometrial procedures, and abortions. douching increases the risk for development

92

with PID, the infection triggers the inflammatory process resulting in...

mucosal irritation, edema, and purulent exudate. the edema and exudate can obstruct the reproductive structures, and the exudate can migrate to the peritoneal cavity, increasing the risk of peritonitis. abscesses and septicemia can develop

93

what are complications of PID?

fertility problems because it affects reproductive structures, peritonitis, adhesions, strictures of the Fallopian tubes, can lead to ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, infertility

94

what are the clinical manifestations of PID?

indications of infection such as fever, chills, myalgia, and leukocytosis; pain or tenderness in the pelvis, lower abdomen, or lower back; abnormal vaginal and cervical discharge; bleeding after sexual intercourse; urinary frequency; dysuria; dysmenorrhea; amenorrhea; metrorrhagia; anorexia; nausea and vomiting

95

what are some causes of candida infections in women?

vaginal pH changes (antibiotics, frequent bubble baths, certain feminine products), decreased immune response, increased glucose in the vaginal secretions

96

is candidiasis sexually transmitted?

no, but men can develop mild symptoms after having sexual intercourse with an infected partner

97

what are the clinical manifestations of candidiasis?

thick, white vaginal discharge that resembles cottage cheese; vulvular erythema and edema; vaginal and labial itching and burning; white patches on the vaginal wall; dysuria; painful sexual intercourse

98

most common STI

chlamydia

99

how can chlamydia be transmitted?

through sexual contact or from mother to child during child birth

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what can chlamydia cause when it is transmitted to a baby?

neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia

101

what are some complications of chlamydia

PID, epididymitis, neonatal conjunctivitis, prostatitis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy

102

what are the manifestations of chlamydia?

can be asymptomatic. dysuria, penile, vaginal, or rectal discharge, testicular tenderness or pain, rectal pain, painful sexual intercourse

103

second most common STI, has many drug-resistant strains

gonorrhea

104

what are the complications of gonorrhea?

neonatal conjunctivitis, PID, epididymitis, prostatitis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy. can eventually lead to arthritis, endocarditis, and dermatitis

105

what are the clinical manifestations of gonorrhea?

dysuria, urinary frequency or urgency; penile, vaginal, or rectal discharge that can be white, yellow, or green; rendess or edema at the urinary meatus; testicular tenderness or pain; rectal pain; painful sexual intercourse; pharyngitis; white blisters that darken and disappear

106

how is syphilis transmitted?

through skin or mucous membrane contact with infective, ulcerative lesions. it can also cross through the placenta after the fourth month gestation

107

first stage of syphilis when painless chancres form at the site of infection about 2-3 weeks after initial infection. the chancres often go unnoticed and disappear about 4-6 later, even without treatment. the bacteria may become dormant, and no other symptoms are present. the individual may not test positive in this stage

primary syphilis

108

about 2-8 weeks after chancres form. characterized by generalized, nonpruritic, brown-red rash, malaise, fever, and patchy hair loss. these symptoms often go away without treatment and the bacteria lay dormant again. the individual will test positive and is contagious during this stage.

secondary syphilis

109

final stage of syphilis when the infection spreads to the brain, nervous system, heart, skin, and bones. can cause blindness, paralysis, dementia, cardiovascular disease, pathological fractures, and death. individual will test positive and is contagious only in the early part of this stage

latent or tertiary syphilis

110

type of herpes that usually manifests above the waist and as a cold sore

herpes simplex virus type 1

111

type of herpes that usually manifests below the waist

herpes simplex virus type 2

112

how is herpes transmitted?

through sexual, direct skin-to-skin contact, and maternal to fetus (if a mother is having an outbreak, they usually take the baby by C section)

113

what can transmission of herpes during child birth result in?

encephalitis and brain damage

114

what do recurrent episodes of herpes begin with?

a tingling or burning sensation at the site ust before the lesion appears (prodrome)

115

how do the lesions of herpes progress?

usually appear as vesicles surrounded by erythema. these vesicles rupture, leaving behind a painful ulcerative lesion with watery exudate. ultimately, a crust forms over the ulcer and it heals spontaneously in 3-4 weeks.

116

why is an individual with genital herpes more likely to contract another STI?

the body's first line of defense is broken

117

stage of herpes characterized by a low-grade fever, malaise, a painful lesion, and groin lymph node enlargement

primary herpes genitalis

118

stage of herpes that begins once the antibodies are formed (these make recurrent episodes less severe). the virus travels up the nerve root and remains dormant. the individual is asymptomatic during this stage

latent herpes genitalis

119

stage of herpes when the virus is reactivated, but produces no symptoms, but is being excreted from the body and can be transmitted to another person through sexual contact

shedding herpes genitalias

120

stage of herpes that is characterized by the reactivation of the virus and a blister that occurs at the same spot as with the initial stage. can be triggered by stress, menstruation, and illness

recurrent herpes genitalias

121

benign growths that are caused by the human papillomavirus?

condylomata acuminata

122

where can the warts of condylomata acuminata occur at?

on the external genitalias, cervix, anus, vaginal walls, thighs, lips, mouth, and throat

123

what can HPV lead to the development of?

reproductive and anal cancers

124

how long does it take the immune system to clear most HPV infections?

2 years, though some infections may persist

125

what can the growths of HPV look like?

they can be raised, flat, rough, smooth, flesh-colored, white, gray, pink, cauliflower-like, large, or barely visible.

126

what are the manifestations of condylomata acuminata?

warts, abnormal bleeding, discharge, or itching

127

STI caused by a one-celled anaerobic organism that burrows under the mucosal lining and primarily resides in the uterus, causing no symptoms

trichomoniasis

128

when does trichomoniasis in women become symptomatic?

when it resides in the vagina and there is a vaginal microbial imbalance. the virus cannot reside in the rectum or mouth

129

how can trichomoniasis be contracted?

through sexual contact or prolonged moisture exposure

130

what are the clinical manifestations of trichomoniasis?

in men it is usually asymptomatic and resolves in a few weeks. in women if causes: copious amounts of odorous, frothy, white or yellow-green vaginal discharge that can irritate the vagina or vulva. they may have painful intercourse, itching, and dysuria. can cause a painful erection in men