Flashcards in Ch. 8: Reproductive Function Deck (130):
conduct sperm to the urethra
produce seminal fluid that nourishes sperm
sex accessory glands
provides proper temperature for the testes
the inner mucosal lining of the uterus which undergoes hormonal changes to facilitate and maintain pregnancy
the middle layer of the uterus which is made up of smooth muscle and a vascular system
the outer serous layer of the uterus that covers all of the fundus and part of the corpus, but none of the cervix
inability to contribute to reproduction
what are male problems that can cause infertility?
decreased sperm or sperm abnormalities, hormone deviations, physical impediments
what are female problems that cause infertility?
ovulation dysfunction, hormone deviations, physical obstructions (usually in the Fallopian tubes), severe reproductive tract infections
anatomical defect in which the urethral meatus occurs on the dorsal surface of the penis and may extend the entire length of the penis in males and where the urethral meatus may be placed in the clitoris in females
what problems is epispadias likely to cause?
urinary tract infections, urination problems (usually in men), sexual dysfunction (usually in women)
why may epispadias cause reproductive problems in men?
they may have trouble propelling the sperm when they ejaculate
condition in which the urethral meatus is on the ventral surface of the penis instead of the end. the opening can extend the length of the penis. males with this condition may have chordee
downward curvature of the penis that occurs with hypospadias and is most apparent when the patient has an erection
chordee. can be painful and need surgical correction
occurs when the foreskin cannot be retracted from the glans penis
when is phimosis normal?
during the first three years of age, but the foreskin should become retractable as the child grows
what things can lead to phimosis?
poor hygiene, infections, inflammation, they could be born with a defect in which the skin is just too tight
what complications can arise because of phimosis?
could cover the urethral meatus and cause a urinary obstruction, and cause a lot of pain
when the foreskin is retracted and cannot be returned over the glans penis
what occurs when the foreskin cannot be returned to the glans penis?
the penis becomes constricted and the glans becomes edematous. lack of blood flow can lead to gangrene, making it a medical emergency
prolonged, painful erection that is not the result of sexual stimulation
what are the two things that priapism can result from?
from too much blood shunting within the corpus cavernosum (nonischemic or high-flow priapism) or from blood becoming trapped in the penis (ischemic or low-flow priapism)
at what ages is priapism most common?
5-10 and 20-50
what conditions can priapism occur with?
blood, circulatory, or nervous dysfunctions: sickle cell anemia, leukemia, trauma, tumors, DM, spinal cord injuries, neurologic diseases, medications, alcohol and illicit drugs, poisonous venom
fluid accumulation between the layers of the tunica vaginalis or along the spermatic cord that can affect one or both testes
what are the possible causes of a hydrocele?
it can be congenital or occur in adults due to trauma, infection, or inflammation
how long do congenital hydroceles usually last?
usually resolve without treatment in one year
are hydroceles usually painful?
no, they are usually painless, but the person complains of a heavy feeling in the scrotum
when will the edema of a hydrocele be worse?
at night - dependent edema
how can you differentiate between fluid accumulation and a tumor in the testicles?
transillumination. it will transilluminate if it is fluid, but not if it is a solid mass
sperm-containing cyst that develops between the testes and epididymis
what are the manifestations of a spermatocele?
painless, small moveable cyst that will transilluminate and can get larger over time (if it gets large enough it may cause pain by putting pressure on other structures)
what are some causes of a spermatocele?
idiopathic, due to a blockage of the duct system, infection, inflammation, trauma
dilated vein in the spermatic cord that occurs when the valves of the veins quit working and cause blood to trap
what are the causes of varicoceles?
congenital defects, obstructions, valvular dysfunctions
what is the most common reason for low sperm counts in men?
what are the manifestations of varicoceles?
"bag of worms" feeling of the testicles, scrotal heaviness
abnormal rotation of the testicles on the spermatic cord that usually occurs in adolescents and young boys
what are some causes of testicular torsion?
most frequently caused by trauma but can also occur after strenuous exercise or spontaneously especially in persons whose testicles are not secrured in the scrotum because of a congenital difference
what are manifestations of testicular torsion?
sudden, severe testicular pain with or without a predisposing event, scrotal swelling, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, hematospermia, and a testicular mass
acute or chronic inflammation of the postate
what are the causes of prostatitis?
usually caused by a bladder infection in which the bacteria migrate to the prostate. can be caused by anything that triggers the inflammatory process
who is prostatitis most common in?
young and middle-aged men, and immune compromised states
what are the manifestations of prostatitis?
dysuria, difficulty urinating, urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, pain in the abdomen, groin, lower back, perineum, or genitals, painful ejaculation, indications of infection such as fever, chills, and maylgia, recurrent UTIs
when does the irregularity of a menstrual cycle occur?
before ovulation. after ovulation, menstration will occur in 14 days
complete cessation of the menstrual cycle that occurs around age 52
what are the manifestations of menopause?
breast and internal reproductive organs atrophy, decreased vaginal secretions (can lead to painful intercourse), behavioral changes, headaches, insomnia, hot flashes, night sweates, decreased bone density
absence of menstruation
what are the causes of amenorrha?
congenital defects, hypothalmic tumors, stress, sudden weight loss, anorexia, extreme reduction in body fat (because fat stores estrogen), chemotherapy, pregnancy, lactatoin, menopause
painful menstruation that is so painful that the woman cannot perform her daily activities
is dysmenorrhea primary or secondary?
it can be primary or secondary to an infection or something
what are the causes of dysmenorrhea?
idiopathic, reproductive problems, child birth
what are bleeding abnormalities usually caused by?
a lack of ovulation
increased blood flow amount and duration
bleeding between menstrual cycles, abnormal and unexpected. happens a lot in perimenopausal women because of abnormalities in hormones
abnormal menstrual cycle, less than 28 days
abnormal menstrual cycle greater than 42 days
prolapsed bladder in which the bladder protrudes into the anterior wall of the vagina and can cause urinary problems
what do the weakened pelvic muscles that cause cystocele usually result from>
what are the clinical manifestations of cystocele?
visualization of the bladder from the vaginal opening, feeling of fullness in the pelvis or vagina, stress incontinence, urinary retention frequency and urgency, pain or urine leakage during sexual intercourse
rectum protrudes into the posterior wall of the vaginal canal and can cause problems with passing stool. may be large enough to bulge through the vaginal canal
what are the clinical manifestations of rectocele
visualization of the rectum from the vaginal opening, feelings of fullness in the pelvis or vagina, difficulty defecating, rectal pressure, bowel incontinence
descent of the uterus or cervix into the vagina that results from conditions that stretch or weaken the pelvic support
what are the stages of uterine prolapse?
first degree - the cervix has dropped into the vagina
second degree - the cervix is apparent at the vaginal opening
third degree - the cervix and uterus bulge through the vaginal opening
what are the clinical manifestations of uterine prolapse?
usually asymptomatic in its early stages, visualization of the cervix or uterus from the vaginal opening, difficult or painful sexual intercourse, vaginal bleeding, difficulty with urination or defecation
produces sperm and male sex steroids
when the endometrium begins growing in areas outside the uterus. most commonly in the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneum, but can grwo anywhere on the body
what occurs during endometriosus?
the abnormal endometrial tissue continues to act as it normallly would during menstration even though it is outside the uterus. the blood becomes trapped and irritates surrounding tissues. pain, cysts, scarring, and adhesions develop because of the inflammation. scarring and adhesions often result in infertility
what are risk factors for the development of endometriosus?
early onset menstruation, late onset menopause, nulliparity, mentrorrhagia, low BMI, and having a closed hymen
when does endometriosus begin developing?
at the onset of menstuation and advances over time. most cases are diagnosed between 25-35 years of age
what are the clinical manifestations of endometriosus?
dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, pelvic pain, dyschezia (pain with bowel movements), pain during or after sexual intercourse, infertility
firm, rubbery growth of the myeometrium
most common benign tumor in women
when do leiomyas usually grow?
usually grow during the menstruation years in the presence of estrogen and shrink after menopause
do leiyomas interfere with fertility?
no, but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion and preterm labor slightly. the risk of fertility and pregnancy problems increases as the tumor grows
what are the clinical manifestations of leiyomas?
menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, pain in the pelvis, back or legs, urinary frequency and retention, urinary tract infections, constipation, abdominal distention, pain during sexual intercourse, anemia
benign, fluid-filled sacs on the ovary that often form during the ovulation process when the egg follicle doesn't release the egg, but instead the fluid stays in the follicle, creating a cyst
when do ovarian cysts cause discomfort?
when they rupture
what are some complications of ovarian cysts?
rare, but can lead to hemorrhage, peritonitis, infertility (when the egg does not rupture out, they cannot become pregnant), and amenorrhea.
what are the clinical manifestations of ovarian cysts?
could be asymptomatic, pelvic pain and discomfort, abnormal menstrual bleeding, abdominal distention
condition in which the ovary enlarges and contains numerous cysts
polycystic ovary syndrome
what are the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome?
idiopathic, hormone or endocrine disorders
what are the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome?
infertility, amenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, and male-pattern baldness
why don't we want women to go more than 3 months without menstruation unless it is purposeful because of drugs?
they are continuing to build up that endometrial lining, but they are not shedding it. this increases their chance of endometrial cancers
breast tissue inflammation associated with infection and lactation. usually caused by a staphylococcal or streptococcal bacterium being introduced to the nipple through the breast feeding process, but can also occur in the absence of lactation or breast feeding
what occurs during mastitis?
the infection usually invades the breast's fatty tissue, triggering an inflammatory response. the edema puts pressure on the milk ducts, causing pain and palpable lumps. the flow of milk may become obstructed and abscesses can develop
what are the clinical manifestations of mastitis?
breast tenderness, swelling, redness, and warmth; breast lumps; pain or a burning sensation continuously or while breast feeding; flu-like symptoms; nipple discharge; enlarged nearby axillary nodes
an infection of the female reproductive system
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
what are PIDs usually caused by?
bacteria ascends through the reproductive tract from the vagina. most commonly from a STI. can be acute or chronic
how can bacteria reach the reproductive tract to cause a PID?
ascend from the vagina, breach during childbirth, endometrial procedures, and abortions. douching increases the risk for development
with PID, the infection triggers the inflammatory process resulting in...
mucosal irritation, edema, and purulent exudate. the edema and exudate can obstruct the reproductive structures, and the exudate can migrate to the peritoneal cavity, increasing the risk of peritonitis. abscesses and septicemia can develop
what are complications of PID?
fertility problems because it affects reproductive structures, peritonitis, adhesions, strictures of the Fallopian tubes, can lead to ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, infertility
what are the clinical manifestations of PID?
indications of infection such as fever, chills, myalgia, and leukocytosis; pain or tenderness in the pelvis, lower abdomen, or lower back; abnormal vaginal and cervical discharge; bleeding after sexual intercourse; urinary frequency; dysuria; dysmenorrhea; amenorrhea; metrorrhagia; anorexia; nausea and vomiting
what are some causes of candida infections in women?
vaginal pH changes (antibiotics, frequent bubble baths, certain feminine products), decreased immune response, increased glucose in the vaginal secretions
is candidiasis sexually transmitted?
no, but men can develop mild symptoms after having sexual intercourse with an infected partner
what are the clinical manifestations of candidiasis?
thick, white vaginal discharge that resembles cottage cheese; vulvular erythema and edema; vaginal and labial itching and burning; white patches on the vaginal wall; dysuria; painful sexual intercourse
most common STI
how can chlamydia be transmitted?
through sexual contact or from mother to child during child birth
what can chlamydia cause when it is transmitted to a baby?
neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia
what are some complications of chlamydia
PID, epididymitis, neonatal conjunctivitis, prostatitis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy
what are the manifestations of chlamydia?
can be asymptomatic. dysuria, penile, vaginal, or rectal discharge, testicular tenderness or pain, rectal pain, painful sexual intercourse
second most common STI, has many drug-resistant strains
what are the complications of gonorrhea?
neonatal conjunctivitis, PID, epididymitis, prostatitis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy. can eventually lead to arthritis, endocarditis, and dermatitis
what are the clinical manifestations of gonorrhea?
dysuria, urinary frequency or urgency; penile, vaginal, or rectal discharge that can be white, yellow, or green; rendess or edema at the urinary meatus; testicular tenderness or pain; rectal pain; painful sexual intercourse; pharyngitis; white blisters that darken and disappear
how is syphilis transmitted?
through skin or mucous membrane contact with infective, ulcerative lesions. it can also cross through the placenta after the fourth month gestation
first stage of syphilis when painless chancres form at the site of infection about 2-3 weeks after initial infection. the chancres often go unnoticed and disappear about 4-6 later, even without treatment. the bacteria may become dormant, and no other symptoms are present. the individual may not test positive in this stage
about 2-8 weeks after chancres form. characterized by generalized, nonpruritic, brown-red rash, malaise, fever, and patchy hair loss. these symptoms often go away without treatment and the bacteria lay dormant again. the individual will test positive and is contagious during this stage.
final stage of syphilis when the infection spreads to the brain, nervous system, heart, skin, and bones. can cause blindness, paralysis, dementia, cardiovascular disease, pathological fractures, and death. individual will test positive and is contagious only in the early part of this stage
latent or tertiary syphilis
type of herpes that usually manifests above the waist and as a cold sore
herpes simplex virus type 1
type of herpes that usually manifests below the waist
herpes simplex virus type 2
how is herpes transmitted?
through sexual, direct skin-to-skin contact, and maternal to fetus (if a mother is having an outbreak, they usually take the baby by C section)
what can transmission of herpes during child birth result in?
encephalitis and brain damage
what do recurrent episodes of herpes begin with?
a tingling or burning sensation at the site ust before the lesion appears (prodrome)
how do the lesions of herpes progress?
usually appear as vesicles surrounded by erythema. these vesicles rupture, leaving behind a painful ulcerative lesion with watery exudate. ultimately, a crust forms over the ulcer and it heals spontaneously in 3-4 weeks.
why is an individual with genital herpes more likely to contract another STI?
the body's first line of defense is broken
stage of herpes characterized by a low-grade fever, malaise, a painful lesion, and groin lymph node enlargement
primary herpes genitalis
stage of herpes that begins once the antibodies are formed (these make recurrent episodes less severe). the virus travels up the nerve root and remains dormant. the individual is asymptomatic during this stage
latent herpes genitalis
stage of herpes when the virus is reactivated, but produces no symptoms, but is being excreted from the body and can be transmitted to another person through sexual contact
shedding herpes genitalias
stage of herpes that is characterized by the reactivation of the virus and a blister that occurs at the same spot as with the initial stage. can be triggered by stress, menstruation, and illness
recurrent herpes genitalias
benign growths that are caused by the human papillomavirus?
where can the warts of condylomata acuminata occur at?
on the external genitalias, cervix, anus, vaginal walls, thighs, lips, mouth, and throat
what can HPV lead to the development of?
reproductive and anal cancers
how long does it take the immune system to clear most HPV infections?
2 years, though some infections may persist
what can the growths of HPV look like?
they can be raised, flat, rough, smooth, flesh-colored, white, gray, pink, cauliflower-like, large, or barely visible.
what are the manifestations of condylomata acuminata?
warts, abnormal bleeding, discharge, or itching
STI caused by a one-celled anaerobic organism that burrows under the mucosal lining and primarily resides in the uterus, causing no symptoms
when does trichomoniasis in women become symptomatic?
when it resides in the vagina and there is a vaginal microbial imbalance. the virus cannot reside in the rectum or mouth
how can trichomoniasis be contracted?
through sexual contact or prolonged moisture exposure