Ch. 10: Endocrine Function Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Ch. 10: Endocrine Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 10: Endocrine Function Deck (102):
1

how do hormones influence processes?

by binding to receptors on the surface or within their target cells. only small amounts of these potent substances are required to make a significant impact at the cellular and organism levels

2

what are hormones classified or described based on?

their action, source, or chemical structure

3

when the end product of a biochemical process inhibits it's own production - the hormone is released only when its levels decline, and production stops when its levels rise

negative feedback loop

4

rare and occurs when one hormone product stimulates the production of more

positive feedback loop

5

what is the difference between tropic and nontropic hormones?

tropic hormones- regulate endocrine glands to produce other hormones
nontropic hormones - directly stimulate cellular metabolism and other activities

6

what happens once the hormone has acted upon the target cell?

the liver metabolizes and the kidneys excrete it to prevent an accumulative effect

7

"master gland", located at the base of the brain, regulated by the hypothalamus

pituitary gland

8

basal portion of the diencephalon which regulates the pituitary gland. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. contains receptors that monitor hormone, nutrient, and ion levels

hypothalamus

9

what is the difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary with how they are regulated?

the anterior pituitary is regulated by hormones released by the hypothalamus. the brain controls the posterior pituitary gland by neurohormones in this region

10

what are the endocrine functions of the pancreas carried out by?

the islest of langerhan

11

which cells secrete glucagon and which secrete insulin?

alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta cells secrete insulin. these are in the islets of langerhan

12

what hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?

thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, gonadotropins

13

what hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?

antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

14

released when serum glucose levels fall and stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose which raises serum glucose levels

glucagon

15

released when serum glucose levels increase. stimulates cellular uptake of glucose, which in turn decreases serum glucose levels

insulin

16

hormones are produced within the follicles of the thyroid. what are these hormones?

thyroxin or T4, triiodothyronine or T3, and thyrocalcitonin or calcitonin.

17

two hormones together that regulate cellular metabolism as well as growth and development

T3 and T4 together

18

how does the hypothalamus influence the thyroid gland?

it stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone, using a negative feedback loop. TSH drives the thyroid to produce T3 and T4

19

what does the thyroid require in order to synthesize T3 and T4

iodine

20

this, along with parathyroid hormone, regulates serum calcium levels

calcitonin

21

how does calcitonin regulate serum calcium levels?

inhibits osteoclast activity and stimulates osteoblast activity.

22

when is calcitonin secreted?

when serum calcium levels are high

23

usually four of theses, on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

parathyroid glands

24

works in the opposite way of calcitonin to regulate serum calcium levels. secreted when calcium levels drop

parathyroid hormones (PTH)

25

how does PTH regulate serum calcium levels?

by increasing osteoclast activity (which increases calcium release from the bone) as well as increasing the absorption of calcium in the GI tract and kidneys

26

what is the difference between the ways that the hypothalamus stimulates the adrenal medulla and the cortex?

adrenal cortex is regulated by negative feedback involving the hypothalamus and adrenocorticotropic hormones. the medulla is regulated by nerve impuleses from the hypothalamus

27

part of the adrenal gland that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine in times of stress.

adrenal medulla

28

what are the three separate regions of the adrenal cortex? what hormones do they secrete?

outermost region of the adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids (adlosterone acts to conserve sodium and water in the body)
middle region of the adrenal cortex secretes gluocorticoids (cortisol increases serum glucose levels)
inner region secretes gonadocorticoids (sex hormones)

29

rare, complex condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce sufficient amounts of some or all of its hormones

hypopituitarism

30

what are the causes of hypopituitarism?

congenital defects, cerebral or pituitary trauma, autoimmune conditions, infections of the brain and tissues that support the brain, TB, pituitary tumors, hemochromatosis, histiocytosis X, sarcoidosis, hypothalamic dysfunction (the only secondary cause)

31

what can hypopituitarism cause? what are they?

dwarfism - short stature caused by deficient levels of growth hormone, somatoropin, or somatotropin-releasing hormone
diabetes insipidus - excessive fluid excretion in the kidneys caused by deficient antidiuretic hormone levels

32

does hypopituitarism develop slowly or suddenly?

it can develop suddenly, but most often develops slowly

33

what are the clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism?

fatigue, headache, cessation of menstruation, infertility, decreased libido, low tolerance for stress, hypotension, muscle weakness, nausea, constipatoin, weight loss or gain, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, cold sensitivity, visual disturbances, loss of body or facial hair, joint stiffness, hoarseness, facial edema, thirst, excessive urination, short stature, delayed growth and development

34

condition in which the pituitary gland secretes excessive amounts of one or all of the pituitary hormones. most commonly caused by tumors that secrete hormones or hormone-like substances

hyperpituitarism

35

what conditions can be caused by hyperpituitarism?

gigantism, acromegaly, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), hyperprolactinemia, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism

36

tall stature caused by excessive grotwth hormone levels prior to puberty

gigantism

37

increased bone size caused by excessive growth hormone levels in adulthood

acromegaly

38

increased renal water retention caused by excessive antidiuretic hormone levels

SIADH

39

excessive prolactin levels that result in menstrual dysfunction and galactorrhea (inappropriate lactation)

hyperprolactinemia

40

excessive cortisol levels that result from the increased ACTH levels

Cushing's syndrome

41

hypermetabolic state caused by excessive thyroid hormones that result from increased TSH

hyperthyroidism

42

does hyperpituitarism develop suddenly or slowly?

can occur suddenly but usually develops slowly

43

what are the manifestations of hyperpituitarism?

headache, visual field loss or double vision, excessive sweating, hoarseness, galactorrhea, sleep apnea, carpal tunnel syndrome, joint pain and stiffness, muscle weakness, paresthesia

44

group of conditions characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both

diabetes mellitus (DM)

45

what can impiared insulin production or action result in?

abnormal carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism because of the glucose transportation issue

46

what are risk factors for the development of DM?

older than 65, Native Americans (have the highest rates), African Americans, and Hispanics

47

what are some acute complications of diabetes mellitus?

hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia

48

what may hyperglycemia be the result of?

excessive dietary carbohydrate intake as well as insufficient or inappropriate diabetic pharmacologic therapy

49

pH imbalance characterized by increased ketones in the urine caused by insufficient insulin; if cells are starved for energy, the body may begin to break down fat-producing toxic acids

diabetic ketoacidosis

50

what may hypoglycemia result from?

insufficient dietary intake, increased physical activity, and excessive diabetic pharmacologic therapy

51

what are the chronic complications of DM caused by?

long-term excessive glucose levels which contribute to the thickening and hardening of vessel walls, causing diffuse ischemia and necrosis

52

what are the chronic complications of DM?

heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, blindness, kidney disease, diabetic neuropathy, amputations, periodontal disease, pregnancy complications, increased susceptibility to infections and delayed healing, erectile dysfunction, depression

53

what are the clinical manifestations of DM?

hyperglycemia, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue

54

develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells. these people must have insulin because they are not making their own

type 1 diabetes

55

when does type 1 diabetes usually begin?

usually strikes children and young adults, but it can start at any age

56

what is though to be the cause of type 1 diabetes?

most likely a viral or environmental trigger in genetically susceptible people causes an autoimmune reaction. cannot be prevented.

57

insulin resistance, a disorder in which the body's cells do not use insulin properly. as the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin, so they may become insulin dependent

type 2 diabetes

58

what are the risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes?

advancing age, obesity, family history, history of gestational DM, impaired glucose metabolism, and physical inactivity.

59

which races are at highest risk for type 2 diabetes?

african americans, hispanics, native americans, asians, native hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders

60

form of glucose intolerance diagnosed during pregnancy

gestational diabetes

61

who is gestational DM most commonly occuring in?

african americans, hyispanics, and native americans. other risk factors include obesity and a family history of DM

62

are women more or less likely to develop DM after they have gestational DM?

they are 40-60% more likely to develop it within 5-10 years

63

cluster of risk factors for DM occurring together that include hyperglycemia, high BP, high cholesterol, and increased waist circumference

metabolic syndrome

64

visible enlargement of the thyroid gland, usually painless but may affect the GI and respiratory tracts

goiter

65

which thyroid states do goiters occur with?

hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidsm, and normal thyroid states

66

what is the most common cause of goiters in the US?

iodine deficiency

67

how does iodine deficiency cause goiter?

decrease iodine leads to decreased T3 and T4 production, and TSH production increases in an attempt to compensate for low levels of thyroid hormones. increased levels of TSH produce thyroid hyperplasia and hypertrophy

68

condition in which the thyroid does not produce sufficient amounts of thyroid hormones

hypothyroidism

69

what may hypothyroidism be a cause of?

hypothalamus, pituitary, or thyroid dysfunction

70

true or false: the risk of hypothyroidism increases with age

true

71

what are the causes of hypothyroidism?

a previous or current inflammation of the thyroid gland can leave a large percentage of thyroid cells damaged and incapable of producing sufficient hormone amounts. autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of thyroid gland failure. the second major cause is iatrogenic (resulting from medical treatments)

72

what is the most common cause of hypothyroidism?

autoimmune thyroiditis

73

what are the manifestations of hypothyroidism?

fatigue, sluggishness, increased sensitivity to cold, constipatoin, pale dry skin, edema in the face hands and feet, hoarseness, hypercholesterolemia, unexplained weight gain, myalgia, arthralgia, muscle weakness, heavier than normal menstrual periods, infertility, brittle fingernails, hair loss or thinning, bradycardia, hypotension, depression, goiter

74

rare, advanced hypothyroidism that can be life threatening

myxedema

75

what are the manifestations of myxedema?

marked hypotension, respiratory depressoin, hypothermia, lethargy, and coma

76

what are the things that hormones regulate?

growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, mood stability

77

condition of excessive levels of thyroid hormones that results in a hypermetabolic state

hyperthyroidism

78

what are the conditions that can cause hyperthyroidism?

excessive iodine, Grave's disease, nonmalignant thyroid tumors that secrete thyroid or thyroidlike hormones, thyroid inflammation which increases capillary permeability resulting from the inflammatory process causes additional thyroid hormones to be released in the blood stream, taking large amounts of thyroid hormone replacement

79

what are the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism?

sudden weight loss, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, increased appetite, nervousness, anxiety or anxiety attacks, irritability, difficulty concentrating, tremor (usually a fine trembling in the hands), diaphoresis, changes in menstrual patterns, increased sensitivity to heat, diarrhea, goiter, difficulty sleeping, exophthalmos

80

autoimmune condition that stimulates thyroid hormone productoin

grave's disease

81

protruding eyes with decreased blinking and movement

exophthalmos

82

sudden worsening of hyperthyroidism symptoms that may occur with infection or stress

thyroid crisis (storm), or thyrotoxicosis

83

what are the manifestations of thyrotoxicosis? what complications can it cause?

fever, decreased mental alertness, and abdominal pain. can cause cardiomyopathy, heart failure, osteoporosis

84

condition in which the parathyroid gland does not produce sufficient amounts of PTH

hypoparathyoidism

85

what things can hypoparathyroidism?

can be caused by congenital defects (a lack of one or more of the four parathyroid glands), damage following surgery, radiation, autoimmune conditions, hypomagnesemia, or metabolic alkalosis

86

what does hypoparathyroidism result in?

hypocalcemia and a subsequent increase in phosphorus levels

87

what are the clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism?

paresthesias of the fingertips, toes, and lips; muscle twitching or spasms; seizures; fatigue or weakness; dysrhythmias; hypotension; abdominal cramping; diarrhea; painful menstruation; patchy hair loss; dry, coarse skin; brittle nails; anxiety or nervousness; headaches; depression or mood swings; memory loss

88

condition of excessive PTH production by the parathyroid gland. this imbalance is caused by tumors, hyperplasia, or chronic hypocalcemia

hyperparathyroidism

89

what will hyperparathyroidism result in?

hypercalcemia. the excessive calcium levels can lead to decreases in phosphorus levels, increases in magnesium levels, and metabolic acidosis

90

what are the manifestations of hyperparathyroidism?

osteoporosis, bone pain, pathological fractures, renal calculi, polyuria, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue or weakness, flaccid muscles, dysrhythmias, hypertension, depression or forgetfulness, nausea and vomiting, anorexia

91

what are the complications of hyperparathyroidism?

hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, matabolic alkalosis

92

rare tumor of the adrenal medulla that excretes epinephrine or norepinephrine and can be life threatening because of the affects of these hormones. can occur as a single tumor or multiple tumors in one or both adrenal glands, rarely malignant.

pheochromocytoma

93

when is pheochromocytoma more common?

in early to middle adulthood

94

how long do the manifestations of pheochromocytoma last?

in unpredictable attacks that usually last 15-20 minutes. reflect the fight-or-flight response

95

what are the clinical manifestations of pheochromocytoma?

hypertension, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, forceful heartbeat, chest pain, profound diaphoresis, hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, sudden onset of severe headaches, anxiety, feeling of extreme fright, pallor, weight loss, difficulty sleeping

96

condition of excessive amounts of glucocorticoids

Cushing's syndrome

97

what is the causes of the glucocorticoid excess with Cushing's syndrome? what is the most common cause?

iatrogenic, resulting from ingestion of glucocorticoid medications. thes medications mimic the body's own hormones. can also be caused by adrenal tumors that secrete glucocorticoids or by pituitary tumors that secrete ACTH and cortisol. paraneoplastic syndrome resulting from cancers outside the endocrine system can also cause it by increasing the production of ACTH and cortisol

98

what are the manifestations of Cushing's syndrome?

obesity (especially around the trunk); moon face (round, full, red face); fatty pad between the shoulders (buffalo hump); muscle weakness; delayed growth and development; acne; broad purple striae on the abdomen, thighs, and breast; thin skin that bruises easily; delayed wound healing; osteoporosis; hirsutism (abnormal hair growth); changes in menstruation; decreased libido; erectile dysfunction; insulin resistance; hypertension; edema; hypokalemia; mood changes and psychosis

99

deficiency of adrenal cortex hormones that can be caused by damage resulting from autoimmune conditoins (the most common cause), infections, hemorrhage, and tumors. may alos result from pituitary dysfunction that results in insufficient ACTH levels

Addison's disease

100

what are the clinical manifestations of Addison's disease?

hypotension, changes in heart rate, hypoglycemia, chronic diarrhea, patchy hyperpigmentation, pallor, extreme weakness and fatigue, anorexia, mouth lesions on the insides of the cheeks, nausea and vomiting, salt craving, slow sluggish movement, unintentional weight loss, mood changes and depression, electrolyte disturbances

101

medical emergency. more severe version of Addison's disease

adrenal crisis

102

what are some causes of Addison's disease?

autoimmune condition, infections, tumors, pituitary dysfunction that results in insufficient ACTH levels