Ch. 9: Basics of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9: Basics of Nutrition Deck (113):
1

What governmental agency regulates nutrition related affairs?

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

2

What are some of the effects of a poorly balanced diet?

* Skin disorders
* Fatigue
* Stress
* Depression
* Disease

3

What are Macronutrients?

* Nutrients that make up the largest part of the nutrition we take in.

* Three basic food groups: Protein, Carbohydrates, and Fats

4

What are Proteins?

Chains of amino acid molecules used in all cell functions and body growth.

5

What does the body use proteins for?

* Duplication of DNA
* Make muscle tissue
* Make blood
* Make Enzymes
* Make keratin for hair, skin, nails
* Make collagen and elastin

6

How many common amino acids are there? How many are essential and nonessential?

20 Common amino acids / 9 Essential and 11 Nonessential

7

Define: Nonessential

Amino acids that can be synthesized by the body and do not have to be obtained from the diet.

8

What are Carbohydrates?

Compounds that break down the basic chemical sugars and supply energy for the body.

9

What are Complimentary foods?

Combinations of two incomplete proteins that, together, provide all the essential amino acids and make a complete protein.

10

What is the most important Carbohydrate? Why?

Glucose, because it provides the majority of the body's energy.

11

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate

The substance that provides energy to cells and converts oxygen to carbon dioxide.

12

What are Mucopolysaccharides?

Carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are also good water binders.

13

What are Glucosaminoglycans?

Water-binding substance between the fibers of the dermis.

14

What are the three(3) basic structural carbohydrate divisions?

Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides

15

Describe Monosaccharides

Carbohydrates made up of one basic sugar unit.
(Ex: glucose, fructose)

[ sweets, syrups, honey, fruits, vegetables ]

16

Describe Disaccharides

Sugars made up of two simple sugars such as lactose and sucrose.

[ cereals, breads, flour, potatoes, rice, legumes, pasta ]

17

Describe Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that contain three or more simple carbohydrate molecules.
(Ex: fiber)

[ grain, bran, wheat, beans, apples, carrots, corn ]

18

What are the three(3) basic types of carbohydrates?

Simple sugars, Starches, and Fiber

19

Describe Simple Sugars

* Can be found in table sugar (sucrose)
* Fruit sugars (fructose)
* Milk sugars (lactose)

20

Describe Starches

Also called complex carbohydrates and are present in many vegetables and grains.

21

Describe Fiber

* Commonly called roughage and divided into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

* These carbohydrates aid in moving food particles from the digestive tract and into the colon.

22

A condition where blood glucose or blood sugar can drop too low without adequate carbohydrates.

Hypoglycemia

23

What are Fats?

*Also known as lipids, fats are macronutrients used to produce energy in the body

* The materials in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.

* Organic compounds made up of a glycerol molecule and fatty acids.

24

What is the main fat in foods?

Triglycerides.

25

What are Triglycerides?

Fats and oils representing 95% of fat intake.

26

What are Phospholipids?

The main lipid in cell membranes.

27

If Triglycerides make up 95% of fat intake, what is the remaining 5%?

Phospholipids and Sterols

28

What are Saturated Fats?

A type of fat, in which the fatty acids all have single bonds. They have more rigid molecules and can cause hardening of the arteries. (processed food)

29

What are Monounsaturated Fats?

* Are more fluid molecules and are important for cell integrity and membrane phospholipids. (olive and canola oil)

30

What are Polyunsaturated fats?

* Liquid at room temperature and are more easily oxidized. (fish, corn, safflower, and nuts)

31

What are essential fatty acids?

Acids the body cannot manufacture on its own, and therefore need to be extracted internally by the body from ingested food.

32

What polyunsaturated fatty acids are necessary for brain and body development, metabolism, and hair and skin growth?

Omega-3 and Omega-6

33

Describe Linoleic Acid

Omega-6, an essential fatty acid used to make important hormones and maintain the lipid barrier of the skin. (safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, borage, flaxseed)

34

Describe Omega-3 fatty acids

Alpha-Linoleic acid, a type of "good" polyunsaturated fat that may decrease the likelihood of cardiovascular diseases. Its also an anti-inflammatory and beneficial for skin. (tuna, salmon, herring, trout, walnuts, algae)

35

What is the clogging and hardening of arteries?

Arteriosclerosis

36

What are trans fatty acids?

Acids that can increase the bad type of cholesterol in blood, known as low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

37

What is Cholesterol?

A waxy substance found in your body that is needed to produce hormones, vitamin D, and bile.

38

Define: Calories

* The measure of heat units.

* Calories fuel the body by making energy available for work.

39

What are Enzymes?

Biological catalysts made of proteins and vitamins that break down complex food molecules to utilize extracted energy.

40

What are Micronutrients?

Vitamins and substances that have no calories or nutritional value, yet are essential for body functions.

41

What important role do vitamins play in the skin's health?

Aiding in healing, softening, and fighting diseases of the skin.

42

What are the two categories of vitamins?

Fat-Soluble (Vitamins A, D, E, and K)
Water-Soluble (Vitamins B and C)

43

Name the Vitamin:

Function: growth and repair of body tissue, bone formation, and vision.

[yellow and green fruits and vegetables, carrots, dairy products, fish liver oil]

Vitamin A
(Retinol)

44

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, appetite maintenance, nerve function, healthy mental state, muscle tone.

[grains, nuts, wheat germ, fish, poultry, legumes, meat]

Vitamin B-1
(Thiamine)

45

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, health in hair, skin, and nails; cell respiration, formation of antibodies, and red blood cells.

[whole grains, leafy green vegetables, liver, fish, eggs]

Vitamin B-2
(Riboflavin)

46

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, formation of antibodies, sodium/potassium balance

[whole grains, leafy green vegetables, yeast, bananas, organ meats]

Vitamin B-6
(Pyridoxine)

47

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, formation of fatty acids.

[legumes, eggs, grains, yeast]

Vitamin B-7
(Biotin)

48

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, healthy nervous system, blood cell formation.

[eggs, milk/milk products, fish, organ meats]

Vitamin B-12
(Cobalamine)

49

Name the Vitamin:

Function: nerve metabolism and transmission; regulates liver, kidneys, and gallbladder.

[lecithin, fish, wheat germ, egg yolk, soybeans]

Choline

50

Name the Vitamin:

Function: red blood cell formation, growth and cell division (RNA and DNA).

[green leafy vegetables, organ meats, yeast, milk products]

Folic Acid
(Folacin)

51

Name the Vitamin:

Function: hair growth, metabolism, lecithin formation.

[whole grains, citrus fruits, yeast, molasses, milk]

Inositol

52

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, healthy skin, tongue and digestive system, blood circulation, essential for synthesis of sex hormones.

[meat, poultry, fish, milk products, peanuts]

B Complex (Niacin)

53

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, red blood cell formation, intestines, hair coloring, sunscreen.

[yeast, wheat germ, molasses]

B Complex (PABA)

54

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism, stimulates nerve and glandular systems, cell respiration.

[whole grains, pumpkin and sesame seeds]

Vitamin B-15
(Pantothenic Acid)

55

Name the Vitamin:

Function: aids in healing, collagen maintenance, resistance to disease.

[citrus fruits, vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes]

Vitamin C
(Ascorbic Acid)

56

Name the Vitamin:

Function: healthy bone formation, healthy circulatory functions, nervous system.

[egg yolks, organ meats, fish, fortified milk]

Vitamin D

57

Name the Vitamin:

Function: red blood cells, inhibits coagulation of blood, cellular respiration.

[green vegetables, wheat germ, organ meats, eggs, vegetable oils]

Vitamin E

58

Name the Vitamin:

Function: respiration of body organs, lubrication of cells, blood coagulation, glandular activity.

[wheat germ, seeds, vegetable oils]

Vitamin F

59

Name the Vitamin:

Function: blood clotting agent, important to proper liver function and longevity.

[green leafy vegetables, milk, kelp, safflower]

Vitamin K

60

Name the Vitamin:

Function: for healthy connective tissue, aids in utilization of vitamin C.

[fruits]

Vitamin P
(Bioflavonoids)

61

Name the Vitamin:

Function: resilient bones, teeth, muscle tissue, regulating heartbeat, blood clotting.

[dairy products, bone meal]

Calcium

62

Name the Vitamin:

Function: body's use of glucose, energy, effective use of insulin.

[corn oil, yeast, clams, whole grains]

Chromium

63

Name the Vitamin:

Function: healthy red blood cells, bone growth and formation, joins with vitamin C to form elastin.

[whole grains, leafy green vegetables, seafood, almonds]

Copper

64

Name the Vitamin:

Function: part of the hormone thyroxine which controls metabolism

[iodized table salt, shellfish]

Iodine

65

Name the Vitamin:

Function: hemoglobin formation, blood quality, resistance to stress and disease.

[meats, fish, leafy green vegetables]

Iron

66

Name the Vitamin:

Function: metabolism

[nuts, green vegetables, whole grains]

Magnesium

67

Name the Vitamin:

Function: carbohydrate and fat production, sex hormone production, bone development.

[egg yolks, legumes, whole grains]

Manganese

68

Name the Vitamin:

Function: bone development, important in protein, fat, and carbohydrate utilization.

[proteins, grains]

Phosphorus

69

Name the Vitamin:

Function: fluid balance; controls activity of heart muscle, nervous system, and kidneys.

[grains, vegetables, bananas, fruits, legumes]

Potassium

70

Name the Vitamin:

Function: maintains muscular, blood, lymph, and nervous systems; regulates body fluid.

[table salt, shellfish, meat and poultry]

Sodium

71

Name the Vitamin:

Function: Collagen and body tissue formation, gives strength to keratin.

[fish, egg, nuts, cabbage, meat]

Sulphur

72

Name the Vitamin:

Function: Healthy digestion and metabolism, reproductive system, aids in healing.

[whole grains, wheat bran]

Zinc

73

Name the Vitamin:

Function: part of important antioxidant; glutathione peroxidase.

[whole grains, liver, meat, fish]

Selenium

74

Name the Vitamin:

Function: bone and tooth formation.

[fluoridated water and toothpaste]

Fluoride

75

What is retinoic acid?

Also known as Retin-A; Vitamin A derivative that has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis and is used to treat acne and visible signs of aging.

76

What is Tretinoin?

Transretinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A used for collagen synthesis, hyperpigmentation, and for acne.

77

What are Provitamins?

Also called precursors; are vitamin-containing substances that are converted to the actual vitamin once they are in the body.

78

Define: Fortified

A vitamin has been added to a food product.

79

Describe Vitamin D.

* sometimes called the sunshine vitamin because the skin synthesizes vitamin D from cholesterol when exposed to sunlight.

* Its main function is to enable the body to properly absorb and use calcium.

* Promotes healthy, rapid healing of the skin and support the body's bone structure.

80

Describe Vitamin E.

* Also known as Tocopherol and is primarily an antioxidant.

* It helps to stop free radicals so that cell membranes are not damaged.

* Helps protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays.

* Helps heal damage to tissues when used both internally and externally.

81

What is Osteoporosis?

A thinning of bones, leaving them fragile and prone to fractures; caused by the reabsorption of calcium in the blood.

82

Describe Vitamin K.

* Essential for the synthesis of proteins necessary for blood coagulation.

* Applied topically has been shown to improve the appearance of abnormal capillaries or spider veins by strengthening capillary walls.

83

What disease is associated with Niacin deficiency?

Pellagra: it affects the skin, mental function, the intestinal tract, and can cause death.

84

What is Cheilosis?

Cracks at the corner of the mouth.

85

A water-soluble vitamin that is required by the body for manufacturing steroids as well as red blood cells.

Deficiencies: Pellagra

Niacin

86

A water-soluble vitamin that works with enzymes to produce energy in cells.

Deficiencies: retarded growth, nerve tissue damage, dryness of skin, and cracks at the corners of the mouth.

Riboflavin (B₂)

87

A water-soluble vitamin that removes carbon dioxide from cells and converts carbohydrates stored as fat.

Deficiencies: a disease known as Beriberi

Thiamine (B₁)

88

What is Beriberi?

A disease associated with thiamine deficiency. It can slow the heart rate as well as cause mental dysfunction.

89

A water-soluble vitamin that is important in the metabolism of proteins, both for breaking down and reconstructing amino acids as needed by the body.

Deficiencies: poor coordination and mental acuity, and can affect the level of white blood cells.

Pyridoxine (B₆)

90

A water-soluble vitamin that is involved in processing amino acids and in transporting certain molecules.
(also known as Folic Acid)

Deficiencies: causes various mental problems, including moodiness, hostility, and memory loss.

Folacin

91

What is Pellagra?

A disease associated with niacin deficiency. It can affect the skin, mental functions, the intestinal tract, and even cause death.

92

A water-soluble vitamin involved in energy formation by cells, as well as in the synthesis of both proteins and fatty acids.

Deficiencies: are primarily caused by intestinal disorders or by poor absorption.

Biotin (B₇)

93

A water-soluble vitamin that is important in the activation of folacin, fatty acid synthesis, and DNA synthesis in conjunction with proper red blood vessel formation by the bone marrow.

Deficiencies: a disorder known as Pernicious Anemia

Cobalamine (B₁₂)

94

What is Pernicious Anemia?

A disorder cause by a lack of Vitamin B₁₂ or from poor absorption of the vitamin caused by other diseases. Thus causing a decrease in red blood cells. Symptoms include weakness and fatigue.

95

A water-soluble vitamin that is important in various processes involved in synthesizing fatty acids and in metabolizing proteins and carbohydrates.

Deficiencies: practically nonexistent

Pantothenic Acid (B₁₅)

96

What are Water-Soluble Vitamins?

* Vitamins B and C, benefit the inside of the cells and they do not stay in the body long.

* Water-soluble vitamins are used in almost every metabolic reaction and are then excreted.

97

Describe Vitamin C.

* Also known as Absorbic Acid.

* Is an antioxidant that helps protect the body from many forms of oxidation and from problems involving free radicals.

* An essential vitamin needed for proper repair of the skin and tissues.

* Promotes collagen production in the dermis tissue, keeping the skin healthy and firm.

* Also helps prevent damage to the capillary walls

98

What are Bioflavonoids?

* Referred to as vitamin P, enhance the absorption of vitamin C.

* Promotes circulation, protects capillary blood vessels, and have an antibacterial effect.

* Are antioxidants found in citrus peel, peppers, grapes, garlic, berries, and green tea.

99

Define: Mineral

Inorganic materials essential in many cell reactions and bodily functions.

100

Name the Mineral:

Function: is important in forming and maintaining teeth and bones, and it helps prevent osteoporosis.

Calcium

101

Name the Mineral:

Function: is required for energy release and protein, synthesis preventing tooth decay, and maintaining nerve and muscle movement.

Magnesium

102

Name the Mineral:

Function: is present in DNA and is involved in energy release. It is needed for bone formation and cell growth, and it assists vitamin and food energy process.

Phosphorus

103

Name the Mineral:

Function: required for energy use, water balance, and muscular movement. It aids in maintaining blood pressure and regulates cell nutrient transfers and reactions. Important in heart and nervous system functions.

Potassium

104

Name the Mineral:

Function: moves carbon dioxide, regulates water levels, and transports materials through cell membranes. It regulates blood pH and helps in stomach, nerve, and muscle function.

Sodium

105

What are Trace Minerals?

These are required in small quantities, are necessary for correct body functions, and many are present in cells and tissue.

106

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: is used in the production of hemoglobin and oxygenation of red blood cells. Is also essential for enzymes and for the immune system.

Iron

107

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: helps metabolize excess fat and is important in development and thyroid health.

Iodine

108

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: is important for protein synthesis and collagen formation. It also promotes wound healing and helps the immune system.

Zinc

109

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: aids in formation of bone, hemoglobin, cells, and elastin. Is involved in healing, energy production, and is essential for collagen formation.

Copper

110

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: helps with energy and the metabolism of glucose and aids in synthesizing fats and proteins. Stabilizes blood sugar levels.

Chromium

111

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: is needed for healthy teeth and bone formation.

Fluoride

112

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: a vital antioxidant protecting the immune system. It works with vitamin E to produce antibodies and to maintain a healthy heart; also needed for tissue elasticity.

Selenium

113

Name the Trace Mineral:

Function: assists protein and fat metabolism, promotes healthy nerves, and supports immune system functions. It also aids in energy production and bone growth.

Magnesium