Ch. 7: Basics of Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7: Basics of Chemistry Deck (64):
1

Define: Chemistry

The science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions.

2

Define: Organic Chemistry

The study of substances that contain the element carbon. (All living things whether plant or animal contain carbon)

3

Define: Inorganic Chemistry

The branch of chemistry dealing with compounds that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen.

4

What is Matter?

Any substance that occupies space and has mass(weight).

5

What are the 3 states of matter?

Solid, Liquid, Gas.

6

Everything known to exist in the universe is either made up of _____ or _____.

Matter or Energy

7

What is an Element?

The simplest form of chemical matter. It cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.

8

What is an Atom?

The particles from which all matter is composed of. The smallest particle of an element that still remains the properties of that element.

9

What is a Molecule?

A chemical combination of two or more atoms.

10

What are Elemental Molecules?

Molecules containing two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically.
[ Ex: the air we breath (O₂) ]

11

What are Compound Molecules?

Chemical combinations of two(2) or more atoms of different elements that are united chemically.
[ Ex: salt = sodium chloride (NaCl) ]

12

Define: Solid

Have a definite size (volume) and a definite shape.

13

Define: Liquid

Have a definite size (volume) but not a definite shape. Liquids take on the shape of the container they are in.

14

Define: Gases

Do not have a definite size (volume) nor a definite shape.
( Ex: steam )

15

What are Physical Properties of matter?

Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
(color, odor, weight, density, specific gravity, melting point, boiling point, hardness)

16

What are Chemical Properties of matter?

Characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
(rusting iron, burning wood)

17

Define: Oxidation

The addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen; a chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.

18

What is a Physical Change?

A change in the form or physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance.

19

What is a Chemical Change?

A change in the chemical properties of a substance that is the result of a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance that have properties different from the original.

20

Name the Element:

* A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is the lightest element known. Flammable and explosive when mixed with air.

Hydrogen (H)

21

Name the Element:

* A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is the most abundant element found on earth. Its chief characteristic is its ability to support combustion.

Oxygen (O)

22

What are Chemical Compounds?

A combination of two or more atoms of different elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties.

23

What are Physical Mixtures?

A combination of two or more substances that are united physically, not chemically, in any proportions with combined properties.

24

Name the Element:

* A colorless, gaseous element and is found chiefly in the form of ammonium and nitrates. It makes up about four-fifths of the air in our atmosphere.

Nitrogen (N)

25

What elements are in the Air we breath?

1 part Oxygen and 4 parts Nitrogen by volume. It also contains a small amount of Carbon Dioxide.

26

Name the Chemical Compound:

* The most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75% of the earth's surface. All cells require this to live.

Water (H₂O)

27

Name the Chemical Compound:

* A colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and a slightly acid taste. It can be used as an antiseptic or, at a higher volume, for bleaching hair.

Hydrogen Peroxide
(H₂O₂)

28

What is the pH scale?

Potential Hydrogen (pH)
* A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.

29

What is an Ion?

An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.

30

Define: Ionization

Ionization causes an atom or molecule to split in two, creating a pair of ions with opposite electrical charges.

31

What is an Anion?

An ion with a negative electrical charge.

32

What is a Cation?

An ion with a positive electrical charge.

33

What is an anion with one oxygen and one hydrogen atom?

Hydroxide

34

What makes a substance acidic?

The addition of Hydrogen ions (H+)

35

What makes a substance more alkaline?

the addition of Hydroxide ions (OH-)

36

Define: Acids

Substances that have a pH below 7.0 and tastes sour.

37

Define: Alkalis

Also called bases; substances have a pH above 7.0 and tastes bitter.

38

What is the natural pH of the skin?

Slightly acidic at 5.5

39

What is the protective barrier of lipids and secretions on the surface of the skin? What does it protect against?

* Acid Mantle
* Certain forms of bacteria and other microorganisms.

40

What are Acid-Alkali neutralization Reactions?

When an acid is mixed with an alkali in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (H₂O) and salt.

41

What is Oxidation-Reduction?

Also known as redox; A chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.

42

Define: Oxidizing Agent

A substance that releases oxygen.

43

Define: Reduction

The subtraction of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.

44

Define: Redox Reaction

Chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.

45

Define: Combustion

The rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
(Ex: lighting a match)

46

What are Antioxidants?

* An ingredient used to stabilize skin care products by preventing oxidation that would otherwise cause a product to turn rancid and decompose.

* They are vitamins such as A, C, and E which can be applied topically or taken internally to increase healthy body functions.

47

How do Antioxidants prevent oxidation?

by neutralizing free radicals.

48

What are Free Radicals?

* Are super oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free radical in the process.

* Unstable molecules that cause inflammation, disease, and biochemical aging in the body, especially wrinkling and sagging skin.

49

Define: Oxidize

To combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen.

50

What do Solutions, Suspensions, and Emulsions all have in common?

They are all Physical Mixtures of two or more different substances.

51

Define: Solutions

A uniform mixture of two or more mutually miscible substances.

52

Define: Solute

Any substance that is dissolved by a solvent form a solution.

53

Define: Solvent

Any substance that is dissolved by a solute to form a solution.

54

Define: Miscible

Liquids that are mutually soluble.
(Ex: water and alcohol)

55

Define: Immiscible

Liquids that are not mutually soluble.
(Ex: water and oil)

56

What are Suspensions?

Unstable mixtures of two or more immiscible substances.

57

What are Emulsions?

Mixtures of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier.

58

Define: Emulsify

To form an emulsion.

59

What are Surfactants?

* Surface Active Agents

* Used to emulsify oil and water.

60

What are the two distinct parts of a surfactant molecule that make the emulsification of oil and water possible?

One end of the surfactant molecule is Hydrophilic and the other end is Lipophilic.

61

Define: Hydrophilic

Easily absorbs moisture; capable of combining with or attracting water. (water-loving)

62

Define: Lipophilic

Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving)

63

What is an Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsion?

Oil droplets dispersed in water with the aid of an emulsifying agent.

64

What is a Water-in-Oil (W/O) Emulsion?

Droplets of water dispersed in oil.