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Flashcards in Ch.14 Deck (35):

Combinational explanation

An explanation commonly used in H-C research that emplasizes the coming together of several factors under certain conditions to produce an outcome as opposed to a linear sequence of cause-effect.


Process analysis

Examining a casual process in which researchers trace the entire sequence with its intervening mechanisms, including the duration of events and impact of early events on later events.


Annales School

A group of French historians that developed a research approach is that holistic, vlends attention to the concrete specificity of daily life with abstract theory building, and considers long-term societywide structural change.



An Annales School idea that a pattern of everyday consciousness and assumptions about ordinary life is pervaside during a particular historical period.


Longue duree

An Annales Schoold idea referring to a long period of time, often a centry or longer, across which fundamental patterns or structures in social life remain stable and shape daily life.


Baconian fallacy

The misconception of assuming that a researcher can operate without any preconceived questions, ideas,assumptions, theories, or presumptions.



An error by which a historical comparative researcher locates an event, expression, object, person, or situation before or after it actually occurred.


Critical indicator

A clear, unambiguours measure of a concept in a specific cultural or historical setting.



The theory of using approaches with assumptions, emphases, and a theoretical point of view that historians employ when writing historical studies.


Primary sources

Qualitatative or quantitative data about past events or social life that were created and used in the past time period.



A specialized library or collection of orginal records and historical documents that makes them available for research.


Secondary sources

Qualitative and quantitative data used in historical research that are reported or written by historian or others who did not directly participate in the events or setting.


Running records

Existing files, report, or documents that are maintained in a relatively consisten manner over a long period of time and are used for statistical research.



Statements or writings about past experiences collected after time has passed and based on a memory or stimulated by a review of old objects, photos, or notes.


Oral history

Chronicle of events obtained during an interview of a person who recollects past events, beliefs, or feelings that he or she experienced.


External criticism

Evaluation of the authenticity of a primary historial source by accurately locating the place and time of its creation (e.g. determination of whether is is a forgery).


Internal criticism

Evaluation of the authenticity and credibility of primary historical sources to determine their accuracy as accounts of what occurred in the past.



A deliberate distortion of the past designed to protect a particular (usually favorable) image.


Nonsource-based knowledge

General information available to a researcher based on reasoning or an indepth awareness of historical circumstances.


Case-study comparative research

Comparative research in which a researcher compares one or two particular cultures (or cultural units such as regions) in depth.


Cultural-context research

Comparative study focused on comparing a small number of societies or cultures that represents theoretical types to permit generalizations to other societies of those same types.


Cross-national research

Comparative study that examines data (usually quantitative) for several variables across many nations and analyzes the data.


Transnational research

Comparative study approach that examines and compares multinational units.


Galton's problem

The potential dilemma of finding correlations or associations among characteristics in multiple cases or units that are diffused from a single source and the units (e.g. countries, cultures) are not really independent cases.


Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)

An extensive catalog and comprehensive collection of enhnographies on many cultures (mostly preliterate) that permits a researcher to make comparisons across cultural units.


Courtesy bias

A judgment that occurs when very strong cultural norms exist to "maintain face" or hide unpleasant information for others, including social researchers.


Back translation

Translation of written material into a second language by having a different translator translate back into the orginal language and them comparing the original writing and the translated versions.


Safari research

Study by researcher from one cuture in which they impose their perspectives, ideas, and issues onto another culture and treat the studied culture as only an exotic object to be studied.


western cultural bias

A judgment made when conducting comparative research that uses the outlook and perspective of advanced Western societies that is largely insensitive to local, non-Western cultural issues, values, or perspectives.



Concept or approach developed and used within a specific cultural setting byt that may not exist elsewhere.



Concept or approach that is universal in the international scientific community or widely shared across multiple cultural settings.


Lexicon equivalence

Similarity of words or phrases to express their identical meaning in a different language or in the translation from one language to another.


Contextual equivalence

Similarity of social roles, norms, or situations across different cultures or historical periods.


Conceptual equivalence

Similarity of ideas or concepts across divergent cultural or historical settings.


Measurement equivalence

Similarity of measures that will accurately represent a construct or variable in divergent cultural or historical settings.