Ch.2 The cell as the basic unit of life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.2 The cell as the basic unit of life Deck (53)
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1

[T/F]
Water is organic.

F
Water is inorganic.

2

Function of water in organisms:
- As a r_________
- As a medium for c_________ r_________
- As a medium of t_________
- As a c_________ agent
- Provides s_________
- As a component of l_________

- As a reactant (反應物)
- As a medium for chemical reactions
- As a medium of transport
- As a cooling agent (冷卻劑)
- Provides support
- As a component of lubricant (潤滑劑)

3

What inorganic ions is a source of nitrogen for the synthesis of proteins in plants?

Nitrate (硝酸鹽)

4

[SQ]

What inorganic ions can activates some enzymes in both animals and plants?

Magnesium (鎂)

5

[MC]

Which of the following is a component of chlorophyll?
A. Calcium
B. Nitrate
C. Phosphate
D. Magnesium

D. Magnesium (鎂)

6

Iron is a component of ___________ in red blood cells in animals.

haemoglobin (血紅蛋白)

7

[T/F]

Both calcium and phosphate are components of bones and teeth.

T

8

[Blanks filling]

_________ is needed for processes like blood clotting, muscle contraction and sending messages in the nervous system.

Calcium

9

T/F: Water helps strengthen cell walls in plants.

F
*Calcium* helps strengthen cell walls in plants.

10

Phosphate is a component of p___________ and n_____ a_____ in both animals and plants.

phospholipids(磷脂); nucleic acids(核酸)

11

Carbon + hydrogen + oxygen = ?

Carbohydrates (碳水化合物)
OR
Lipids (脂質)

12

Carbon + hydrogen + oxygen + nitrogen = ?

Protein (蛋白質)

13

Carbon + hydrogen + oxygen + nitrogen + phosphorus = ?

Nucleic acids (核酸)

14

Carbohydrates: Glucose / Starch / Glycogen / Cellulose

(?) is an energy reserve in animals.
(?) is the major component of plant cell walls.
(?) is broken down directly to release energy.
(?) is an energy reserve in plants.

Glycogen (糖原) is an energy reserve in animals.
Cellulose (纖維素) is the major component of plant cell walls.
Glucose (葡萄糖) is broken down directly to release energy.
Starch (澱粉) is an energy reserve in plants.

15

Lipids:
- T___________ act as an energy reserve in organisms. They also help reduce heat loss and protect the internal organs.
- P___________ are the component of cell membranes.

Triglycerides (甘油三脂)
Phospholipids (磷脂)

16

Proteins:
i. Structural proteins ii. Enzymes iii. Hormones iv. Antibodies v. Haemoglobin

Functions:
(_) help regulate body processes.
(_) carries oxygen.
(_) help protect the body against pathogens.
(_) regulate chemical reactions.
(_) make up body tissues.

iii. v. iv. ii. i.

Hormones (激素) help regulate body processes.
Haemoglobin (血紅蛋白) carries oxygen.
Antibodies (抗體) help protect the body against pathogens.
Enzymes (酶) regulate chemical reactions.
Structural proteins make up body tissues.

17

Nucleic acids:
- _____ carries genetic information.
- _____ is involved in the synthesis of proteins.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)

18

T/F: According to the Cell Theory, all organisms are made up of more than one cell.

F
All organisms are made up of one or more cells.

19

T/F: According to the Cell Theory, the cell is the basic unit of life.

T

20

According to the Cell Theory, all cells come from ____________ cells.

pre-existing

21

Compared to ______ microscopes, _________ microscopes can produce images with higher magnifications (放大率) and resolution (分辨率).

light; electron

22

T/F: The image observed under electron microscope is inverted.

F
The image observed under *light* microscope is inverted.

23

Differences between low-power and high-power magnifications:

i. Low-power ii. High-power
(_) Larger area of specimen observed (More cells are observed)
(_) More details of specimen
(_) Image observed is brighter

i.
ii.
i.

24

Total magnification of the light microscope
= magnification of _________ + magnification of _________

eyepiece; objective

25

Magnification
= size of the _______ ÷ size of the _______

image; object

26

Which of the following present in both animal cells and plant cells?

i. cytoplasm ii. chloroplast
iii. cell wall iv. ribosome

A. only i B. i and ii
C. ii and iii D. i and iv

D
Chloroplast and cell wall only present in plant cells.

27

Nucleus contains ______, which carries genetic information that controls activities of the cell

DNA

28

Cytoplasm:
- Holds many o_________
- As a site for many _________ reactions (e.g. glycolysis)
- Allows the m_________ and t_________ of materials inside the cell

organelles
chemical
movement; transport

29

Cell ___________:
- Encloses the cell and separates the cell contents from the outside environment
- controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell

membrane

30

Cell _____ protects, supports and gives shape to the plant cell.

wall

31

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER):
- Has ribosomes; as a site for the synthesis of _________

proteins

32

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER):
- Does not have ribosomes; as a site for the synthesis of ______

lipids

33

Ribosome is involved in the synthesis of _________.

proteins

34

Mitochondrion acts as the main site of __________.

respiration (呼吸作用)

35

Chloroplast contains chlorophyll which captures ______ energy and converts it into ________ energy in food in photosynthesis.

light; chemical

36

Vacuole:
- May contain w_____, e_______, food and other dissolved substances
- Provides support to the plant when it is full of water

water; enzymes

37

[T/F]

The size of animal cells is larger than plant cells.

F
The size of animal cells is smaller than plant cells.

38

[T/F]

All plant cells have chloroplasts.

F
Only green plant cells have chloroplasts.

39

What sub-cellular structure is presented in plant cells but not in animal cells?

Cell wall

40

In the microscopic examination, what solution is commonly used to stain animal cells or tissues for clearer observation?

Methylene blue solution (亞甲藍溶液)

41

In the microscopic examination, what solution is commonly used to stain plant cells or tissues for clearer observation?

Iodine solution (碘液)

42

Eukaryotic cells:
Animal cells and plant cells that have a ______ _________ surrounded by the nuclear membrane.

true nucleus

43

[T/F]

All eukaryotes are multicellular.

F
Most eukaryotes (真核生物) are multicellular (多細胞的), but some are unicellular (單細胞的).

44

Prokaryotic cells:
Cells (e.g. bacteria) that do not have a ______ _________.

true nucleus

45

[MC]

All prokaryotes are { multicellular / unicellular }.

unicellular

46

[MC]

Eukaryotic cells are usually { larger / smaller } than prokaryotic cells.

larger

47

[MC]

DNA (genetic materials) is lying free in the cytoplasm of { prokaryotic / eukaryotic } cells.

prokaryotic

48

[Blanks filling]

Some ribosomes are attached to ______ in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

49

[MC]

Membrane-bounded organelles is { presented / absented } in prokaryotic cells.

absented

50

[Matching]

i. prokaryotic cell ii. eukaryotic cell

(_) Most contains cellulose
(_) Does not contain cellulose

ii.
i.

51

[Matching]

i. prokaryotic cell ii. eukaryotic cell

(_) Have all its ribosomes lying free in the cytoplasm
(_) Have some its ribosomes lying free in the cytoplasm

i.
ii.

52

Division of labour (分工) among different types of cells is commonly found in ____________ _________.

multicellular organisms (多細胞生物)

53

[Blanks filling]

Levels of body organization:
cell → ______ → ______ → ______ → organism

cell → tissue → organ → system → organism