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Flashcards in ch.26 Deck (119):
1

The kidneys, being retroperitoneal, don't have a visceral peritoneal serous covering. They have 3 layers to cover them, though; in order, from deep to superficial:

renal capsule, adipose capsule, renal fascia

2

This hollow area within the kidney carries the blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, and renal pelvis of the ureter.

renal sinus

3

outer layer of the kidney

renal cortex

4

inner layer of kidney tissues

renal medulla

5

These cone-shaped areas in the renal medulla are bundles of collecting tubules and nephron loops.

renal pyramids

6

The tip of each pyramid; urine flows from this structure into the urine-collecting area within the renal sinus.

renal papillae

7

One of these structures surrounds each renal papilla, collecting urine.

minor calyx

8

These collect urine from a cluster of minor calyces

major calyx

9

The expanded superior end of the ureter, this is continuous internally with the major calyces and collects urine until stretched enough to initiate a peristaltic wave down the ureter.

renal pelvis

10

The functional unit of the kidney

nephron

11

Literally, this term means 'little ball' - this structure is a cluster of about 50 fenestrated capillaries, from which plasma is filtered to begin the process of urine formation.

glomerulus

12

This double-layered structure captures the fluid that filters from the glomerular capillaries

Bowman's (glomerular) capsule

13

This distinct structure includes a glomerulus and its capsule

renal corpuscle

14

The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule consists of these peculiar-looking cells, and functions to provide structural reinforcement for the unusually high BP in glomerular capillaries

podocytes

15

The fluid found in the space of the glomerular capsule.

glomerular filtrate

16

The duct that leads from the glomerular capsule to the medullary pyramid.

renal (uriniferous) tubule

17

PCT

proximal convoluted tubule

18

100% of organic nutrients are reabsorbed in this portion of the renal tubule

PCT

19

This region of the nephron is easily identified in section by its brush border

PCT

20

These thick-walled regions of the nephron are identifiable in the medulla and actively absorb salt.

thick segments of nephron loops

21

This is the only thing absorbed in the thin segments of the nephron loops.

water

22

DCT

distal convoluted tubule

23

Tubular fluid flows from the ascending limb of the nephron loop into this.

DCT

24

The granular cells of the afferent arteriole plus the macula densa of the DCT, and the mesangial cells in between, form this structure that secretes renin when BP drops or tubular fluid is too concentrated.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

25

While not properly part of a nephron, tubular fluid in this part of the renal tubule can still have its concentration regulated

collecting duct

26

Blood travels from an interlobular artery, through this vessel, then into a glomerular capillary network.

afferent arteriole

27

Blood leaves the glomerulus into this vessel, from which it flows next into the peritubular capillaries

efferent arteriole

28

These vessels carry blood through the renal cortex.

interlobular A and V

29

These vessels carry blood through the renal medulla

interlobar A and V

30

These vessels carry blood across the tops of the renal pyramids, at the border between cortex and medulla.

arcuate A and V

31

These straight capillaries parallel the nephron loops.

vasa recta

32

The nerve supply to the kidneys, these nerves arise from one of the autonomic ganglia in the abdomen and carry sympathetic nerve fibers.

renal nerves

33

3 regulatory substances secreted by the kidneys

renin, erythropoietin, calcitriol

34

This enzyme, secreted by the JGA of each nephron, catalyzes activation of angiotensin.

renin

35

This hormone, secreted by the kidneys, stimulates an increase in RBC production by bone marrow

erythropoietin

36

This steroid hormone, derived from vitamin D and manufactured in part by skin, liver, and kidneys, increases calcium reabsorption by gut, kidney, and bone to increase blood Ca concentration

calcitriol

37

This pathway for movement of fluid from plasma to capsular space consists of the fenestrated glomerular capillary, a thin, porous basement membrane, and the filtration slits of the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule.

filtration membrane

38

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

39

normal GFR in males is how many mL/min?

125 mL/min

40

Normal BP in glomerular capillaries

50 mm Hg

41

Normal capsular fluid pressure

10 mm Hg

42

Net Filtration Pressure is calculated the same way here as it was in the vessels chapter: BP minus fluid hydrostatic P minus BCOP. The normal NFP is

10 mm Hg

43

The ability of the nephrons to automatically adjust GFR to blood flow, based on the myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback, is called...

renal autoregulation

44

The main mechanism of sympathetic regulation of renal function is

vasoconstriction of renal arteries

45

This is how nutrients are reclaimed from the tubular fluid, so they aren't lost in the urine.

tubular reabsorption

46

This is how wastes are added to the tubular fluid, to increase the rate of their removal from the body and increase their concentration in the urine.

tubular secretion

47

Many nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and lactate, are reabsorbed in the PCT by cotransport with this ion.

sodium

48

This hormone stimulates reabsorption of calcium and secretion of phosphate in the nephron

parathyroid hormone

49

How much water is reabsorbed by the PCTs?

about 65% of the original filtrate volume

50

True or false: urea, the major nitrogenous waste, is reabsorbed from the renal tubule

true , but only passively, not by active transport

51

Where does all the stuff reabsorbed from the renal tubule go?

peritubular capillaries

52

The highest rate of reabsorption by the tubular epithelial cells. This is a high number for nutrients, low for waste products.

transport maximum

53

Term for glucose in the urine

glycosuria

54

About how much of the original filtrate volume is absorbed by the nephron loops?

15%

55

The 3 major nitrogenous wastes

urea, uric acid, creatinine

56

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

57

Ammonia formed in the liver when amino acids are deaminated is too toxic to release into the blood, so it is converted into ...

urea

58

Secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, this hormone stimulates the collecting ducts to increase reabsorption of water, reducing urine output.

antidiuretic hormone

59

This hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, targets cells of the DCT and upper collecting ducts, and stimulates secretion of K+ and reabsorption of Na+. As a result, water reabsorption increases

aldosterone

60

This hormone is an antagonist to ADH and aldosterone. It increases the excretion of sodium and water, so it lowers blood volume. Also, it is a vasodilator, so it lowers vascular resistance. Both of these factors lower blood pressure.

atrial natriuretic hormone (atrial natriuretic peptide)

61

This is the stimulus for secretion of ANH by muscle cells (myocytes) of the atria

Chronic stretching of atrial myocytes

62

Disorder of excessive water in urine (producing 10-20 LITERS of urine a day) due either to ADH hyposecretion or defective ADH receptors

Diabetes insipidus

63

Excessive urine formation; associated with diabetes

polyuria

64

The three components, in the renal medulla, that make up the countercurrent mechanism to create, maintain, and use the salt gradient in the renal pyramids

nephron loop, vasa recta, and collecting duct

65

This, along with sodium and chloride, is found in high concentration in the renal pyramids, so that water can be reabsorbed out of the collecting ducts

urea

66

This is suggestive of kidney infection

pyuria

67

Normal value and normal range of urine pH

6.0, 4.5 - 8.2

68

A drug that increases urine volume; often given to lower systemic BP.

diuretic

69

Effect of alcohol that results in polyuria

inhibits ADH secretion

70

This is a measure of waste removal; a high value for this is typical for wastes

renal clearance

71

Type of tissue lining ureters and bladder.

transitional epithelium

72

This part of the bladder floor is not distensible; its corners are marked by the orifices of the ureters and urethra

trigone

73

This reflexively opens when the bladder contracts; its smooth muscle is part of the bladder wall around the internal urethral orifice.

internal urethral sphincter

74

Composed of skeletal muscle in the pelvic floor, this can be voluntarily controlled to prevent or allow micturition.

external urethral sphincter

75

This visceral reflex involves stretch receptors in the bladder wall, afferent and efferent fibers in the pelvic nerves, and the detrusor muscle of the bladder as the effector.

micturition reflex

76

Control center of the micturition reflex before voluntary control is established is the ____ and with voluntary control is the ___.

sacral region of the spinal cord; micturition center in pons

77

The term for various areas in the body with different fluid composition.

fluid compartments

78

Percent of total body water that is intracellular fluid.

65% (males) - 70% (females)

79

The term for tissue (interstitial) fluid, plus plasma & lymph, plus specialized subcompartments

extracellular fluid

80

Two sources of body water

ingested and metabolic

81

Part of the brain where the osmoreceptors within the thirst center are located.

hypothalamus

82

Stimulating this is the only way to actually increase body water; all other regulatory mechanism can at best only reduce the loss of water

thirst center (and drinking)

83

Loss of water and salts, proportionately (such as with hemorrhage).

hypovolemia

84

Loss of water but not salts; body fluids become more concentrated.

dehydration

85

excess water intake, dilutes body fluids resulting in hyponatremia

hypotonic hydration (water intoxication)

86

A problem in which total body fluid might be normal, but blood volume is too low - from edema commonly, as in anaphylactic shock.

fluid sequestration

87

This is the most abundant cation in the ICF.

K ions

88

This is the most abundant cation in the ECF.

Na ions

89

Excess sodium in blood

hypernatremia

90

Although low in both ECF and ICF, calcium is higher in the ...

ECF

91

Phosphate is higher in (ICF or ECF)

ICF

92

High blood potassium level, can alter cell polarity and excitability - even stop the heart.

hyperkalemia

93

This ion, whether in excess or deficiency, can be associated with making nerve and muscle cells less excitable.

potassium

94

Deficiency of calcium, can cause tetany

hypocalcemia

95

A positive ion is called a _____.

cation

96

A negative ion is called an ____.

anion

97

In an ionic molecule, if the cation is hydrogen, the molecule is a(n) _____.

acid

98

In an ionic molecule, if the cation is anything but hydrogen, the molecule is a(n) _____.

salt

99

H2CO3 is called _____ ______.

carbonic acid

100

When H2CO3 dissociates, it forms HCO3-, which is called _____.

bicarbonate

101

When proteins change their shape due to changes in the concentration of H+, we say they are _____.

denatured

102

A _____ is a proton acceptor

base

103

OH- is called _____.

hydroxide

104

True or false: hydroxide is a strong base

true

105

Water's pH is _____ because the concentration of H+ equals the concentration of OH-.

neutral

106

What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 0.001 moles per liter?

3

107

The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution of pH 2 is ___ times (higher or lower?) than a solution of pH 3.

10 times higher

108

A _____ is a chemical that prevents large changes in the pH

buffer

109

The 3 primary chemical buffers of the blood

bicarbonate, phosphate, protein

110

This results from hypoventilation and results in acidemia.

hypercapnia

111

The 3 primary urine buffers

bicarbonate, phosphate, ammonia

112

This anion is usually reabsorbed by renal tubular cells, as a result of carbonic anhydrase activity, resulting in an increase in the buffering capacity of the blood.

bicarbonate

113

Results from any hypoventilatory disorder, such as COPD, brainstem injury, or barbiturate use

respiratory acidosis

114

Results from hyperventilation, caused often by panic attacks.

respiratory alkalosis

115

Caused by loss of bicarbonate (such as in diarrhea), ingestion of excess acid, or production of excess metabolic acids (ketoacidosis in diabetes, or lactic acidosis in seizures).

metabolic acidosis

116

Caused by ingestion of antacids or vomiting of stomach acid.

metabolic alkalosis

117

Correcting the blood pH when there is a metabolic disorder

respiratory compensation

118

Correcting the blood pH when the respiratory system has caused an imbalance.

Renal compensation

119

This ICF cation can be shifted with pH imbalances; acidosis shifts it out of cells, and alkalosis shifts it into cells.

potassium