Flashcards in ch.26 Deck (119):
The kidneys, being retroperitoneal, don't have a visceral peritoneal serous covering. They have 3 layers to cover them, though; in order, from deep to superficial:
renal capsule, adipose capsule, renal fascia
This hollow area within the kidney carries the blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, and renal pelvis of the ureter.
outer layer of the kidney
inner layer of kidney tissues
These cone-shaped areas in the renal medulla are bundles of collecting tubules and nephron loops.
The tip of each pyramid; urine flows from this structure into the urine-collecting area within the renal sinus.
One of these structures surrounds each renal papilla, collecting urine.
These collect urine from a cluster of minor calyces
The expanded superior end of the ureter, this is continuous internally with the major calyces and collects urine until stretched enough to initiate a peristaltic wave down the ureter.
The functional unit of the kidney
Literally, this term means 'little ball' - this structure is a cluster of about 50 fenestrated capillaries, from which plasma is filtered to begin the process of urine formation.
This double-layered structure captures the fluid that filters from the glomerular capillaries
Bowman's (glomerular) capsule
This distinct structure includes a glomerulus and its capsule
The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule consists of these peculiar-looking cells, and functions to provide structural reinforcement for the unusually high BP in glomerular capillaries
The fluid found in the space of the glomerular capsule.
The duct that leads from the glomerular capsule to the medullary pyramid.
renal (uriniferous) tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
100% of organic nutrients are reabsorbed in this portion of the renal tubule
This region of the nephron is easily identified in section by its brush border
These thick-walled regions of the nephron are identifiable in the medulla and actively absorb salt.
thick segments of nephron loops
This is the only thing absorbed in the thin segments of the nephron loops.
distal convoluted tubule
Tubular fluid flows from the ascending limb of the nephron loop into this.
The granular cells of the afferent arteriole plus the macula densa of the DCT, and the mesangial cells in between, form this structure that secretes renin when BP drops or tubular fluid is too concentrated.
While not properly part of a nephron, tubular fluid in this part of the renal tubule can still have its concentration regulated
Blood travels from an interlobular artery, through this vessel, then into a glomerular capillary network.
Blood leaves the glomerulus into this vessel, from which it flows next into the peritubular capillaries
These vessels carry blood through the renal cortex.
interlobular A and V
These vessels carry blood through the renal medulla
interlobar A and V
These vessels carry blood across the tops of the renal pyramids, at the border between cortex and medulla.
arcuate A and V
These straight capillaries parallel the nephron loops.
The nerve supply to the kidneys, these nerves arise from one of the autonomic ganglia in the abdomen and carry sympathetic nerve fibers.
3 regulatory substances secreted by the kidneys
renin, erythropoietin, calcitriol
This enzyme, secreted by the JGA of each nephron, catalyzes activation of angiotensin.
This hormone, secreted by the kidneys, stimulates an increase in RBC production by bone marrow
This steroid hormone, derived from vitamin D and manufactured in part by skin, liver, and kidneys, increases calcium reabsorption by gut, kidney, and bone to increase blood Ca concentration
This pathway for movement of fluid from plasma to capsular space consists of the fenestrated glomerular capillary, a thin, porous basement membrane, and the filtration slits of the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule.
glomerular filtration rate
normal GFR in males is how many mL/min?
Normal BP in glomerular capillaries
50 mm Hg
Normal capsular fluid pressure
10 mm Hg
Net Filtration Pressure is calculated the same way here as it was in the vessels chapter: BP minus fluid hydrostatic P minus BCOP. The normal NFP is
10 mm Hg
The ability of the nephrons to automatically adjust GFR to blood flow, based on the myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback, is called...
The main mechanism of sympathetic regulation of renal function is
vasoconstriction of renal arteries
This is how nutrients are reclaimed from the tubular fluid, so they aren't lost in the urine.
This is how wastes are added to the tubular fluid, to increase the rate of their removal from the body and increase their concentration in the urine.
Many nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and lactate, are reabsorbed in the PCT by cotransport with this ion.
This hormone stimulates reabsorption of calcium and secretion of phosphate in the nephron
How much water is reabsorbed by the PCTs?
about 65% of the original filtrate volume
True or false: urea, the major nitrogenous waste, is reabsorbed from the renal tubule
true , but only passively, not by active transport
Where does all the stuff reabsorbed from the renal tubule go?
The highest rate of reabsorption by the tubular epithelial cells. This is a high number for nutrients, low for waste products.
Term for glucose in the urine
About how much of the original filtrate volume is absorbed by the nephron loops?
The 3 major nitrogenous wastes
urea, uric acid, creatinine
blood urea nitrogen
Ammonia formed in the liver when amino acids are deaminated is too toxic to release into the blood, so it is converted into ...
Secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, this hormone stimulates the collecting ducts to increase reabsorption of water, reducing urine output.
This hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, targets cells of the DCT and upper collecting ducts, and stimulates secretion of K+ and reabsorption of Na+. As a result, water reabsorption increases
This hormone is an antagonist to ADH and aldosterone. It increases the excretion of sodium and water, so it lowers blood volume. Also, it is a vasodilator, so it lowers vascular resistance. Both of these factors lower blood pressure.
atrial natriuretic hormone (atrial natriuretic peptide)
This is the stimulus for secretion of ANH by muscle cells (myocytes) of the atria
Chronic stretching of atrial myocytes
Disorder of excessive water in urine (producing 10-20 LITERS of urine a day) due either to ADH hyposecretion or defective ADH receptors
Excessive urine formation; associated with diabetes
The three components, in the renal medulla, that make up the countercurrent mechanism to create, maintain, and use the salt gradient in the renal pyramids
nephron loop, vasa recta, and collecting duct
This, along with sodium and chloride, is found in high concentration in the renal pyramids, so that water can be reabsorbed out of the collecting ducts
This is suggestive of kidney infection
Normal value and normal range of urine pH
6.0, 4.5 - 8.2
A drug that increases urine volume; often given to lower systemic BP.
Effect of alcohol that results in polyuria
inhibits ADH secretion
This is a measure of waste removal; a high value for this is typical for wastes
Type of tissue lining ureters and bladder.
This part of the bladder floor is not distensible; its corners are marked by the orifices of the ureters and urethra
This reflexively opens when the bladder contracts; its smooth muscle is part of the bladder wall around the internal urethral orifice.
internal urethral sphincter
Composed of skeletal muscle in the pelvic floor, this can be voluntarily controlled to prevent or allow micturition.
external urethral sphincter
This visceral reflex involves stretch receptors in the bladder wall, afferent and efferent fibers in the pelvic nerves, and the detrusor muscle of the bladder as the effector.
Control center of the micturition reflex before voluntary control is established is the ____ and with voluntary control is the ___.
sacral region of the spinal cord; micturition center in pons
The term for various areas in the body with different fluid composition.
Percent of total body water that is intracellular fluid.
65% (males) - 70% (females)
The term for tissue (interstitial) fluid, plus plasma & lymph, plus specialized subcompartments
Two sources of body water
ingested and metabolic
Part of the brain where the osmoreceptors within the thirst center are located.
Stimulating this is the only way to actually increase body water; all other regulatory mechanism can at best only reduce the loss of water
thirst center (and drinking)
Loss of water and salts, proportionately (such as with hemorrhage).
Loss of water but not salts; body fluids become more concentrated.
excess water intake, dilutes body fluids resulting in hyponatremia
hypotonic hydration (water intoxication)
A problem in which total body fluid might be normal, but blood volume is too low - from edema commonly, as in anaphylactic shock.
This is the most abundant cation in the ICF.
This is the most abundant cation in the ECF.
Excess sodium in blood
Although low in both ECF and ICF, calcium is higher in the ...
Phosphate is higher in (ICF or ECF)
High blood potassium level, can alter cell polarity and excitability - even stop the heart.
This ion, whether in excess or deficiency, can be associated with making nerve and muscle cells less excitable.
Deficiency of calcium, can cause tetany
A positive ion is called a _____.
A negative ion is called an ____.
In an ionic molecule, if the cation is hydrogen, the molecule is a(n) _____.
In an ionic molecule, if the cation is anything but hydrogen, the molecule is a(n) _____.
H2CO3 is called _____ ______.
When H2CO3 dissociates, it forms HCO3-, which is called _____.
When proteins change their shape due to changes in the concentration of H+, we say they are _____.
A _____ is a proton acceptor
OH- is called _____.
True or false: hydroxide is a strong base
Water's pH is _____ because the concentration of H+ equals the concentration of OH-.
What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 0.001 moles per liter?
The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution of pH 2 is ___ times (higher or lower?) than a solution of pH 3.
10 times higher
A _____ is a chemical that prevents large changes in the pH
The 3 primary chemical buffers of the blood
bicarbonate, phosphate, protein
This results from hypoventilation and results in acidemia.
The 3 primary urine buffers
bicarbonate, phosphate, ammonia
This anion is usually reabsorbed by renal tubular cells, as a result of carbonic anhydrase activity, resulting in an increase in the buffering capacity of the blood.
Results from any hypoventilatory disorder, such as COPD, brainstem injury, or barbiturate use
Results from hyperventilation, caused often by panic attacks.
Caused by loss of bicarbonate (such as in diarrhea), ingestion of excess acid, or production of excess metabolic acids (ketoacidosis in diabetes, or lactic acidosis in seizures).
Caused by ingestion of antacids or vomiting of stomach acid.
Correcting the blood pH when there is a metabolic disorder
Correcting the blood pH when the respiratory system has caused an imbalance.