Ch.3 Phonetics, Phonology and Speech Sound Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.3 Phonetics, Phonology and Speech Sound Disorders Deck (74)
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1

Phonetics

the study of physical, physiological, and acoustic variables associated with speech sound production

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Historical phonetics

the study of how sounds change over time

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Experimental phonetics

the study of speech sound production; it analyzes physiological movements and acoustic properties with the help of lab instruments.

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Articulatory phonetics

concentrates on how a speaker produces speech sounds

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Acoustic phonetics

the study of the properties of sound waves as they travel from the vocal tract of a speaker to the ear of a listener.

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Perceptual phonetics

the study of the judgments listeners make of the speech sounds they hear

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Clinical or applied phonetics

the branch dedicated to practical application of the knowledge derived from experimental, articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics.

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phoneme

a family of phones or sounds perceived to belong to the same category by the listener

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allophone

a variant or alternate form of a phoneme within a language

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allophonic variations

the varied productions of a phoneme

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free variation

when an allophone CAN be exchanged for one another in a certain phonetic context without affecting the word

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complementary distribution

when an allophone CANNOT be exchanged for another in specific phonetic contexts.

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morpheme

the minimal unit of meaning, the smallest unit of lang. carrying semantic interpretation

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Free morphemes

a whole word that cannot be broken down any further

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Bound morphemes

word endings or beginnings that attach to a word to change its meaning

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Minimal pairs

morphemes that are similar except for one phoneme

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allographs

the different letters and letter combinations that can be used to represent the same phonemes

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what are some acoustic aspects of speech?

frequency, amplitude, duration

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Frequency

the rate at which an object vibrates, measured in terms of the number of vibrations per unit of time

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pure tone

a single frequency that repeats itself

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complex tones

a combination of different frequencies

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periodic

a pattern that repeats itself

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aperiodic

lacking a pattern

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spectrum

a pattern of physical energy across a frequency range

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What determines frequency?

pitch

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Amplitude

intensity, the magnitude of vibration of a sound source

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duration

a measure of time during which vibrations are sustained

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Suprasegmental aspects of speech

includes pitch,stress, rate of speech, juncture

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Pitch

variable sensory experience due to differing frequency of vocal fold vibrates, sentences, and continuous speech

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intonation

changes in pitch contours

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Stress

gives prominence to certain syllables within a sequence of syllables, a segment that works at the level of syllables..

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Rate of speech

the numbers of words, syllables, or phonemes produced per second are the alternate measures

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Consonants

are phonemes produced by some narrowing or closing of the vocal tract

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consonant clusters

consonants produced in side-by-side combination

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pre-vocalic

consonants before vowel

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post-vocalic

consonants after vowel

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Vowels

sounds produced with a relatively open vocal tract configuration

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Monophthongs

single sounding vowels

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Diphthongs

double sounding vowels, made by the quick gliding of two simple vowels, so that they cannot be separated
ex: toy

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open syllable

when the syllable ends in a vowel

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closed syllable

when the syllable ends with a consonant

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Onset

the consonant or consonant cluster that the word starts with

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Nucleus

the vowel or diphthong that follows the initial consonant or cluster, middle of word

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Rhyme

the part that splits the nucleus and the coda

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Coda

the consonant or cluster that follows the nucleus

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Manner of production

indicates how the airstream that passes through the vocal tract is modified to form a consonant

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Place of articulation

indicates where along the vocal tract a constriction is formed to produce the consonant.

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Voice

indicates whether the vocal folds are vibrating during the consonants production

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What are the 6 Manners of Articulation?

stops, fricatives, affricates, nasals, glides, liquids

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plosives

an audible burst of noise or explosion of air upon its release

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What are the 7 Places of Articulation?

bilabial, labiodental, linguadental (interdental), alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal

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Binary

a system by which a phoneme is given a plus (+) value if a feature is present and a (-) value is a feature is not

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what are the 16 sets of binary features?

1. Vocalic
2. Consonantal
3. High
4. Back
5. Low
6. Anterior
7. Coronal
8. Round
9. Tense
10. Continuant
11. Nasal
12. Strident
13. Sonorant
14. Interrupted
15. Lateral
16. Voice

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Obstruents

consonants that are made with a complete closure or narrow constriction of the oral cavity, so that the airstream is stopped or friction noise is produced

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Sibilants

high-frequency sounds that have a more strident quality and longer duration than most other consonants. sibilants include the fricatives and affricates.

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Approximants

the approximating nature of the contact between the the two articulators. sometimes glides and liquids

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Rhotic

a sound with /r/ coloring

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Syllabics

sounds that serve as a nucleus for a syllable, all vowels
this includes nasals and liquids

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what are the 4 ways that vowel articulation is described?

1) the position of the tongue
2) the shape of the pharynx
3) the shape of the lips
4) the muscular tension

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vowel quadrant

the diagram that defines the four extreme points of vowel production; high, low, front, back

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High-front vowels

/i/ and /I/

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Mid-front vowels

/e/ and /ɛ/

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Low-front vowel

/æ/

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Mid-central vowels

/ɝ/, /ɚ/, /ə/, and /ʌ/

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High-back vowels

/u/ and /ʊ/

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Mid-back vowels

/o/ and /ɔ/

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Low-back vowels

/ɑ/

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rounded vowels

vowels that are produced with the lips somewhat protruded, such as in the words "who", "cook" and "boat"

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unrounded vowels

vowels that are produced with the lips in a more neutral or retracted position, as in the words "bet", "hat", "hot", "hey"

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tense

longer in duration and produced with a higher degree of muscular tension

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lax

shorter in duration and produced with a lower degree of muscular tension

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Articulation disorders

disorders that included mainly few errors, mostly distortions, functional or organic, and they generally preserved phonemic contrasts

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Phonological disorders

disorders that were manifested by multiple errors that formed various patterns with lost phonemic contrasts and much reduced intelligibility

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What do the errors have "to be" to consider it related to a disorder?

they must be clinically significant