Flashcards in Ch.3 Phonetics, Phonology and Speech Sound Disorders Deck (74)
the study of physical, physiological, and acoustic variables associated with speech sound production
the study of how sounds change over time
the study of speech sound production; it analyzes physiological movements and acoustic properties with the help of lab instruments.
concentrates on how a speaker produces speech sounds
the study of the properties of sound waves as they travel from the vocal tract of a speaker to the ear of a listener.
the study of the judgments listeners make of the speech sounds they hear
Clinical or applied phonetics
the branch dedicated to practical application of the knowledge derived from experimental, articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics.
a family of phones or sounds perceived to belong to the same category by the listener
a variant or alternate form of a phoneme within a language
the varied productions of a phoneme
when an allophone CAN be exchanged for one another in a certain phonetic context without affecting the word
when an allophone CANNOT be exchanged for another in specific phonetic contexts.
the minimal unit of meaning, the smallest unit of lang. carrying semantic interpretation
a whole word that cannot be broken down any further
word endings or beginnings that attach to a word to change its meaning
morphemes that are similar except for one phoneme
the different letters and letter combinations that can be used to represent the same phonemes
what are some acoustic aspects of speech?
frequency, amplitude, duration
the rate at which an object vibrates, measured in terms of the number of vibrations per unit of time
a single frequency that repeats itself
a combination of different frequencies
a pattern that repeats itself
lacking a pattern
a pattern of physical energy across a frequency range
What determines frequency?
intensity, the magnitude of vibration of a sound source
a measure of time during which vibrations are sustained
Suprasegmental aspects of speech
includes pitch,stress, rate of speech, juncture
variable sensory experience due to differing frequency of vocal fold vibrates, sentences, and continuous speech
changes in pitch contours
gives prominence to certain syllables within a sequence of syllables, a segment that works at the level of syllables..
Rate of speech
the numbers of words, syllables, or phonemes produced per second are the alternate measures
are phonemes produced by some narrowing or closing of the vocal tract
consonants produced in side-by-side combination
consonants before vowel
consonants after vowel
sounds produced with a relatively open vocal tract configuration
single sounding vowels
double sounding vowels, made by the quick gliding of two simple vowels, so that they cannot be separated
when the syllable ends in a vowel
when the syllable ends with a consonant
the consonant or consonant cluster that the word starts with
the vowel or diphthong that follows the initial consonant or cluster, middle of word
the part that splits the nucleus and the coda
the consonant or cluster that follows the nucleus
Manner of production
indicates how the airstream that passes through the vocal tract is modified to form a consonant
Place of articulation
indicates where along the vocal tract a constriction is formed to produce the consonant.
indicates whether the vocal folds are vibrating during the consonants production
What are the 6 Manners of Articulation?
stops, fricatives, affricates, nasals, glides, liquids
an audible burst of noise or explosion of air upon its release
What are the 7 Places of Articulation?
bilabial, labiodental, linguadental (interdental), alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal
a system by which a phoneme is given a plus (+) value if a feature is present and a (-) value is a feature is not
what are the 16 sets of binary features?
consonants that are made with a complete closure or narrow constriction of the oral cavity, so that the airstream is stopped or friction noise is produced
high-frequency sounds that have a more strident quality and longer duration than most other consonants. sibilants include the fricatives and affricates.
the approximating nature of the contact between the the two articulators. sometimes glides and liquids
a sound with /r/ coloring
sounds that serve as a nucleus for a syllable, all vowels
this includes nasals and liquids
what are the 4 ways that vowel articulation is described?
1) the position of the tongue
2) the shape of the pharynx
3) the shape of the lips
4) the muscular tension
the diagram that defines the four extreme points of vowel production; high, low, front, back
/i/ and /I/
/e/ and /ɛ/
/ɝ/, /ɚ/, /ə/, and /ʌ/
/u/ and /ʊ/
/o/ and /ɔ/
vowels that are produced with the lips somewhat protruded, such as in the words "who", "cook" and "boat"
vowels that are produced with the lips in a more neutral or retracted position, as in the words "bet", "hat", "hot", "hey"
longer in duration and produced with a higher degree of muscular tension
shorter in duration and produced with a lower degree of muscular tension
disorders that included mainly few errors, mostly distortions, functional or organic, and they generally preserved phonemic contrasts
disorders that were manifested by multiple errors that formed various patterns with lost phonemic contrasts and much reduced intelligibility