ch.2 Anatomy and Phys of Speech Production Flashcards Preview

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1

What are the four basic systems of speech?

1) respiration
2) phonation
3) resonation
4) articulation

2

the lungs

a paired, soft and spongy structure, aid in breathing

3

the diaphragm

the chief muscle of inhalation, which lies just below the lungs, it separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity

4

abdomen

contains the muscles that are active during inhalation

5

the thoracic cavity

contains the respiratory passages: the trachea,bronchial tubes, and the lungs.

6

trachea

a tube made up of 20 rings of cartilage, lies just beneath the larynx, serves as the main conductor chamber for air

7

bronchial tubes

the tubes within the lungs

8

what is cartilage made out of?

tough connective tissues

9

what is the purpose of the rib cage?

to protect the underlying thoracic organs

10

sternum

the chest bone, where the ribs attach to

11

costal cartilage

the cartilage of the ribcage

12

rib pairs 1-7 are what?

the true ribs

13

rib pairs 8-10 are what?

the false ribs

14

rib pairs 11-12 are what?

the floating ribs

15

external intercostals

lift the ribs up and out to increase the diameter of the cavity for inhalation

16

internal intercostals

pull the ribs down to decrease the diameter of the cavity for exhalation

17

subcostals

pull the lower ribs down and apart to depress the thorax

18

what does speech production require?

modification of airflow and air pressure within the oral cavity

19

larynx

a cartilaginous structure suspended by muscles and ligaments attached to the U-shaped hyoid bone

20

why is the hyoid bone important?

it acts as a "hanger" for the larynx and its structures

21

what consists of nine cartilages?

the cartilaginous framework of the larynx

22

what are the larger unpaired cartilages?

1) thyroid
2) cricoid
3) epiglottis

23

what are the smaller paired cartilages?

arytenoids, corniculates and cuneiforms

24

what is commonly referred to as butterfly shaped?

the thyroid cartilage

25

what is another name for the adams apple?

the thyroid prominence

26

cricoid cartilage

the ring shaped protective cartilage of the larynx

27

arytenoid cartilages

the pointy, triangular parts of the larynx, touch when vocal folds come together

28

vocal process

where the vocal folds are attached

29

lateral or muscular process

helps the vocal folds open and close

30

what does adduct mean?

to bring together

31

what does abduct mean?

to pull apart, to separate

32

glottis

the space between the vocal folds

33

Bernoulli effect

as gases or liquids move though a constricted passage, velocity increases and pressure decreases.

34

what causes a suction action to draw together the vocal folds?

when a puff of air is released, a drop of air pressure occurs

35

Myoelastic- aerodynamic theory

states that vocal folds open and close in a cyclical manner bc of the buildup of air pressure, the + and - differences and the elasticity of the muscles.

36

what are the three vocal sound resonators called?

the pharyngeal cavity, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavity

37

the pharyngeal cavity

throat; space modified by vertical position of the larynx (high or low) and the position of the tongue in the mouth (forward or back)

38

nasal cavity

nose; space modified by opening and closing off of nasal cavity using the soft palate/velum.

39

three sounds in English that are nasalized?

the consonants /m/ /n/ and /ang/

40

oral cavity

mouth; resonating structure for all sounds except nasals. space modified through movements and positioning of the mandible, tongue, hard palate, teeth, cheekbones & velum.

41

what is articulation?

the molding of the airstream into recognizable speech sounds by several structures in the mouth

42

name the two types of articulators

movable and immovable

43

movable articulators

tongue, lips, the soft palate, and the mandible or jaw.

44

what are the three sections of the tongue divided into?

the tip, blade and the dorsal.

45

what are the lips primarily made up of?

the orbicularis muscle

46

what does the sealing of the lips allow for?

build up of intramural pressure for plosive sounds

47

what is another name for the jaw?

the mandible

48

velum

the soft palate; begins at the hard palate and extends towards the pharynx

49

what is the dual role that the velum plays?

resonance and articulation of speech sounds

50

where is the uvula suspended from?

the soft palate, velum

51

what is a bifurcated uvula?

a uvula that is split down the middle

52

immovable articulators

the hard palate,the alveolar ridge, the teeth

53

the hard palate

separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity

54

how is the maxilla subdivided?

palatine process, alveolar process, and the premaxilla

55

what houses the four upper front teeth?

premaxilla

56

what is the common number of teeth on humans?

32 teeth, 16 upper and 16 lower

57

auditory mechanism

children learn speech production through hearing what is spoken to them and around them

58

what is the importance of hearing?

learn verbal language skills
monitor rate, volume and clarity of speech
awareness of environment and dangers

59

three parts of the human ear

outer, middle and inner

60

auricle or pinna

the visible part of the ear on the side of the head

61

what does the pinna do?

it 'funnels' sound waves into the ear canal

62

what is the key structure for transmitting frequencies common to fricatives?

outer ear, pinna

63

middle ear

air filled space lined with mucous membrane

64

what does the middle ear include?

tympanic membrane, the ossicular chain, and the eustachian tube

65

what is another name for the ear drum?

the tympanic membrane

66

what is the ossicular chain made out of?

three tiny bones called the malleus, incus, and stapes

67

malleus

first part of ossicular chain; hammer

68

incus

second part of the ossicular chain; anvil

69

stapes

third part of the ossicular chain; stirrup

70

where does the inner ear begin?

the oval window

71

the oval window

a small opening in the temporal bone of the inner ear

72

where does the oval window lead into?

the labyrinth, a portion of the inner ear

73

what is the labyrinth?

a complex system of interconnecting canal and passages

74

what does the labyrinth contain?

the semicircular canals and the cochlea

75

what makes the semicircular canals important?

they maintain balance or equilibrium

76

the cochlea

the main inner ear structure of hearing

77

what is the cochlea filled with?

the special endolymph fluid

78

what is the floor of the cochlea called?

the basilar membrane

79

the mechanical energy from the middle ear is changed into what?

electrical energy

80

where is the electrical energy transmitted?

the to VIII cranial nerve

81

the organ of Corti

the inner ear's most important structure of hearing, located in the floor of the cochlea, contains cilia

82

what is cilia and what does it do?

cilia are tiny hair like receptors, which respond to sound

83

vestibulo-acoustic nerve

picks up the electrical or neural impulses created by the movement of the cilia

84

where are these electrical impulses transmitted to next?

the primary auditory cortex in the cerebral hemispheres