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Flashcards in CH35p2 Deck (84):
1

What is the point in the respiratory track where inspired gas reaches body temperature, ambient pressure, saturated (BTPS) conditions?
a. point of thermal equilibrium
b. hygroscopic saturation boundary
c. thermal inversion boundary
d. isothermic saturation boundary

ANS: D
As inspired gas moves into the lungs, it achieves BTPS conditions (body temperature, 37° C; barometric pressure; saturated with water vapor [100% relative humidity at 37° C]). This point, normally approximately 5 cm below the carina, is called the isothermic saturation boundary.

2

Which of the following factors cause the isothermic saturation boundary (ISB) to shift farther down into the airways?
1. decreased ambient temperature
2. increased tidal volume (VT)
3. endotracheal intubation
a. 1 and 2
b. 2 and 3
c. 1 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

ANS: D

3

What is the primary goal of humidity therapy?
a. decrease airway reactivity to cold
b. maintain normal physiologic conditions
c. deliver drugs to the airway
d. reduce upper airway inflammation

ANS: B
The primary goal of humidification is to maintain normal physiological conditions in the lower airways

4

Which of the following inspired conditions should be maintained when delivering medical gases to the nose or mouth?
a.
50% relative humidity (RH) at 20° to 22° C
b.
100% RH at 20° to 22° C
c.
80% RH at 28° to 32° C
d.
100% RH at 32° to 35° C

ANS: A

5

Clinical indications for delivering cool humidified gas include which of the following?
1. post-extubation edema
2. upper airway inflammation
3. croup (laryngotracheal bronchitis)
4. epiglottitis
a. 2, 3, and 4
b. 1, 2, and 3
c. 1, 2, 3, and 4
d. 2 and 3

ANS: C
The delivery of cool humidified gas is used to treat upper airway inflammation resulting from croup, epiglottitis, and post-extubation edema.

6

What device adds molecular water to gas?
a.
agitator
b.
humidifier
c.
nebulizer
d.
atomizer

ANS: B
A humidifier is a device that adds molecular water to gas.

7

What is the most important factor determining a humidifier’s performance?
a.
surface area
b.
temperature
c.
time of contact
d.
gas flow

ANS: B
Temperature is an important factor affecting humidifier performance.

8

Indications for use of Bland Aerosols include all of the following except:
A. Prescence of upper airway edema
B. Croup
C. Laryngotracheobronchitis
D. Prescence of bypassed airway

B. Croup

9

Contraindications of bland aerosol administration include:
A. History of bronchospasm
B. Bronchoconstriction
C. Past episodes of asthma
D. History of airway hyperresponsiveness

B & D

10

Hazards of bland aersol administration include:
A. Infection
B. Edema
C. Atelactasis
D. Wheezing
E. Bronchoconstriction without bypassed airway

A, B, D

11

The following are signs of the need of bland aerosol treatment:
A. Prior extubation
B. Surgery
C. Bypassed upper airway
D. Stridor
E. Ronchi
F. Wheezing
G. Croup

C, D, G

12

Name 4 symptoms that would indicate a need for bland aerosol therapy

Stridor
Brassy, crouplike cough
Bypassed airway
Patient discomfort due to airway instrumentation
History of upper airway irritation and increased work of breathing

13

Factors that would need to be considered when monitoring a patients response to aerosol therapy include:
A. Only the objective saturation level
B. Patients level of dyspnea
C. Breath sounds
D. Sputum production

B, C, D

14

T or F: A patients subjective response should not be considered if their saturation has returned to normal when monitoring the patients progress.

F: A patients subjective response such as pain, discomfort, dyspnea, restlessness should be considered when monitoring patient

15

Name the contraindications of bland aerosol administration

Bronchoconstriction
History of airway hyperresponsiveness

16

Increasing the FIO2 can be accomplished by :
A. Increasing flow
B. Increasing the diameter of air entrainment ports
C. Decreasing the diameter of air entrainment ports
D. Increasing the amount of corrugated tube

C. Decreasing the diameter of air entrainment ports

17

When starting treatment, the flowmeter should be set at:
a. 6-8 l/min
b. 10 l/min
C. 15 l/min
d. 8-10 l/min

b. 10 l/min

18

T or F Doubling your O2 flow will double your flow?

F; can't make it double itself, you can add tandem aerosol

19

When large unstable particles fall out of suspension or impact on internal surfaces this is called?

Baffling

20

The total water output of unheated LVN varies between _____ & ______ mg H2O/L

26-35

21

The total water output on a heated LVN varies from _____ to ______ mg H2O/L

33-55

22

What are 3 types of edema that should be an indication for use of bland aerosol therapy

Prescence of upper airway edema
Subglottic edema
Postextubation edema

23

Goals of aerosol therapy

Improved bronchial hygiene
Humidify gases delivered in patients with artificial airways

24

Improving bronchial hygiene include:
A. Improving the efficiency of cough mechanism
B. To restore and maintain normal function of mucociliary escalator
C. Inducing sputum
D. Humidify gases

A & B

25

_______ is associated with decreased compliance and gas exchange and with increased lung resistance.
A. bronchospasm
B. Edema
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. bronchorestriction

b. Edema

26

Hazards & complications of aerosol therapy include:

Edema of airway wall
Caregiver exposure to droplet
Patient discomfort
Overhydration
Infection
Bronchoconstriction, bronchospasm, wheezing

27

Bronchorestriction is a hazard because it may lead to:
a. Edema
B. Infection
C. Hypoxemia
D. Overhydration

C. Hypoxemia

28

Name 5 indications for bland aerosol therapy

1. Edema
2. Laryngotracheobronchitis
3. Postop management of upper airway
4. Prescence of bypassed upper airway for heated bland aerosol
5. Need for sputum specimens or mobilization of secretions

29

Name two instances when overhydration may occur in therapy?

A. in infants
B. associated with ultrasonic nebulizers

30

Bronchoconstriction, bronchospasm, wheezing is seen most frequently in which population of patients

asthmatics

31

Bland aerosols are composed of what type of solution?

Sterile water or saline

32

Bland aerosols contain:
A. Particles of water
B. Gas vapor

A. particles of water

33

The range of air entrainment ports range from what percentage?

35 to 100%

34

Always analyze inspired O2:
A. Near the patient
B. At the flowmeter
C. In the room
D. At the source of the LVN

A. Near the patient

35

Aerosol tubing & back pressure decrease the entrained air & raise O2 percentage T or F

True

36

All LVN have a liquid reservoir of at least?
A. 500 ml
B. 300 ml
C. 250 ml
D. 200 ml

C. 250 ml

37

Risks of heated rods include:
A. change in FIO2 levels
B. Burns to practitioner
C. Infection
D. Increased flow if not measured properly

B & C

38

What indicates that flow is sufficient with an aerosol mask?
A. Aerosol mist can be seen flowing in and out of side ports
B. Aerosol mist can be seen flowing out during inspiration of side ports
C. The flowmeter is set at 10 l/min
D. Aerosol is seen leaving the side ports during exhalation

B. Aerosol mist can be seen flowing out during inspiration

39

As humidified gas cools on its way to the patient ________ results in water drainage to lowest point
A. condensation
B. Evaporation
C. Conduction
D. precipitate

A. Condensation

40

Heating water ________ patients humidity
A. Increases
B. Decreases

Decreases

41

If secretions are thick water should be:
A. Cooled
B. Heated
C. can remain at room temperature

B. Heated

42

Name 4 things an incubator is used for:

A. maintain the infants temperature
B. Manage humidity
C. Isolate the infant from outside environment
D. Control infants inspired o2

43

The internal temperature of an incubator should be:

36 to 36.5 C

44

When maintaining oxygen levels, what should be used?
A. The built in O2 delivery system
B. Oxyhood
C. Mist Tent
D. humidifier

B. Oxyhood

45

A _______ _________ may be positioned over an incubator to keep infant in NTE

Radiant Warmer

46

With an aerosol tent:
A. Supplemental O2 will be needed
B. You must be sure their are no escape wholes for air
C. No supplemental O2 is used
D. Top of canopy should be left open for better flow & ventilation

C & D

47

If a child has layngotracheobronchits, what type of aerosol is preferred?
A. Cool
B. Heated

A. Cool

48

Which is not a goal of Aerosol Therapy
A. Reduce the work of breathing during an asthma attack
B. Improve efficiency of cough
C. Remove the mucociliary escalator
D. Deliver meds by SVN, MDI, DPI

C.

49

What is the nebulizer output of jet nebulizer:

1 - 1.5 ml/min

50

What is the output of USN?

Up to 6 ml/min

51

What is the particle size of jet nebulizer?

55% are between 1 to 5 um

52

What is the particle size of ultrasonic nebulizer?

97 % at 1 to 5 um

53

With ultrasonic nebulizer the particles are ______ proportional to signal frequency?
A. Directly
B. Linearly
C. Inversely
D. indirectly

C. Inversely

54

With USN the rate of aerosol production is ________ proportional to signals amplitude
A. Directly
B. Linearly
C. Inversely
D. Indirectly

A. Directly

55

Name 7 parts of the aerosol generator?

DISS flow meter inlet
Outlet port
Variable entrainment port
Siphon Tube
Water Reservoir
Filter
Jet Orifice

56

Aerosols are?
A. Water vapor
B.. Liquid particles
C. Suspended water
D. Gas & water vapor

B. Liquid particles

57

Jet nebulizers operate at a flow range of _____ to ____l/min

6 to 15

58

What type of nebulizer is not seen anymore but was used for mist tents?

Babbington

59

What is a high flow device capable of delivering flows up to 100 l/min

Babbington

60

What type of nebulizer is not really seen in hospitals but used mostly in homes, it is known for its infection causing qualities?

Spinning disk nebulizer

61

With a USN what determines the volume of aerosol output?

Amplitude

62

T or F USN are a good device for continuous aerosol treatment

False

63

What would you use to induce sputum production?
A. Hypertonic saline
B. jet nebulizer
C. Albuterol
D. Mist Tent

A. Hypertonic saline

64

In a USN you would always use what type of water in the coupling chamber?
A. Sterile water
B. Saline
C. Tap water

C. Tap Water

65

How do you determine flow?

Add ratio parts and X by flow

66

What is the O2 to air ratio when O2 is 24 %

1 :25
1 o2 to 25 air mix

67

What is the Air to O2 ratio at 35% FIO2

5:1

68

What is the Air to O2 ratio at 50% FIO2

1.7 to 1

69

What is the formula for O2: Air?

O2:Air = 1: 100 - %O2 / %O2 - 21

70

What is the formula to find total flow?

Add ratio parts & multiply by flow

71

What is the total flow when you have a ratio of 1 : 1.7 at flow meter setting of 10 l/min

27.2 L/min

72

What is the formula to find FIO2?

FIO2 = Oxygen flow + (airflow x 0.2) / totalflow

73

What is the FIO2 if your O2 flow is 5 and airflow is 10

.47

74

In some cases you will need to determine the individual O2 and air flow rates based on the total flow needed. What is the formula to obtain individual O2 flow?

O2 flow = Total flow (%O2 - 21) / 79

75

Once you know the individual O2 flow based on a normal inspiratory rate based on the minute volume x 3 how would you know their individual air flow?

60 lmin minus O2 flow

76

What is the O2 flow & Air flow if you have a total flow of 90 & FIO2 of 50%

A: 90(50-21) / 79 = 2610 / 79 = 33.04 O2 flow
90 - 33.04 = 56.96 air flow

77

Identify the components of an USN:
1. air-entrainment orifice
2. radiofrequency generator
3. nebulizer chamber
4. piezoelectric transducer
5. blower or fan
a. 1, 3, and 4
b. 2, 3, 4, and 5
c. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
d. 3, 4, and 5

ANS: B

78

The particle size produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer depends mainly on which of the following?
a. blower (fan) speed
b signal amplitude
c. signal frequency
d. chamber baffling

ANS: C
The frequency at which the crystal vibrates, preset by the manufacturer, determines aerosol particle siz

79

Which of the following mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) aerosol suspensions is produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer operated at 1.25 MHz?
a. 1 to 2 μm
b. 6 to 10 μm
c. 4 to 6 μm
d. less than 1 μm

A nebulizer operating at 1.25 MHz produces an aerosol with an MMAD of between 4 and 6 μm.

80

The aerosol output (in mg/L) of an ultrasonic nebulizer depends mainly on which of the following?
a. signal amplitude
b. chamber baffling
c. source current
d. signal frequency

ANS: A
Amplitude affects water output

81

To get the highest density of Aerosol from a USN how would you set the Amplitude & Flow? Would they be High or Low

High Amplitude, Low flow

82

What are some problems common to mist tents?
1. heat retention
2. CO2 buildup
3. hypothermia
a. 1, 2, and 3
b. 1 and 2
c. 2 and 3
d. 1 and 3

ANS: B
Any body enclosure poses two problems: CO2 build-up and heat retention

83

After administering a 30-minute bland water aerosol treatment to a dehydrated elderly patient with chronic bronchitis, you note increased wheezing and a general decrease in the intensity of breath sounds. Which of the following has probably occurred?
a. Reactive bronchospasm has occurred and worsened airway obstruction.
b. Inspissated secretions have swollen and worsened airway obstruction.
c. Nothing; this is a normal response to bland aerosol therapy.
d. The patient is developing atelectasis due to overhydration

ANS: B
In addition to overhydration of the patient, inspissated pulmonary secretions also can swell after high-density aerosol therapy, worsening airway obstruction.

84

A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is receiving heated water aerosol treatments through a jet nebulizer four times daily as a supplement to other bronchial hygiene measures designed to aid in mobilizing retained secretions. After each session, you notice the presence of moderate wheezing. Which of the following recommendations would you make to the physician?
a. Discontinue the heated water aerosol treatments.
b. Consider prior treatment with a bronchodilator.
c. Switch to a higher-density aerosol (e.g., ultrasonic).
d. Discontinue the other bronchial hygiene measures

ANS: B
If the physician still requests bland aerosol therapy for such a patient, pretreatment with a bronchodilator may be needed