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Flashcards in Ch.5 Deck (79):
1

Developmental researchers who emphasize learning and experience are supporting ______________; those who emphasize biological maturation are supporting ______________.

continuity
stages

2

What findings in psychology support (1) the stage theory of development and (2) the idea of stability in personality across the life span? What findings challenge these ideas?

(1) Stage theory is supported by the work of Piaget (cognitive development), Kohlberg (moral development), and Erikson (psychosocial development), but it is challenged by findings that change is more gradual and less culturally universal than these theorists supposed. (2) Some traits, such as temperament, do exhibit remarkable stability across many years. But we do change in other ways, such as in our social attitudes.

3

define zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

4

define embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

5

define fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

6

define teratogens

(literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

7

how many infants have FAS?

about 1 in every 800

8

define fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features

9

what is epigenetic effect?

chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off

10

The first two weeks of prenatal development is the period of the ______________. The period of the ______________ lasts from 9 weeks after conception until birth. The time between those two prenatal periods is considered the period of the ______________.

zygote
fetus
embryo

11

define habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

12

Developmental psychologists use repeated stimulation to test an infant’s ______________ to a stimulus.

habituation

13

What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?

Developmental psychologists study physical, mental, and social changes throughout the life span. They focus on three issues: nature and nurture (the interaction between our genetic inheritance and our experiences); continuity and stages (whether development is gradual and continuous or a series of relatively abrupt changes); and stability and change (whether our traits endure or change as we age).

14

What is the course of prenatal development, and how do teratogens affect that development?

The life cycle begins at conception, when one sperm cell unites with an egg to form a zygote. The zygote’s inner cells become the embryo, and the outer cells become the placenta. In the next 6 weeks, body organs begin to form and function, and by 9 weeks, the fetus is recognizably human.
Teratogens are potentially harmful agents that can pass through the placental screen and harm the developing embryo or fetus, as happens with fetal alcohol syndrome.

15

What are some newborn abilities, and how do researchers explore infants’ mental abilities?

Babies are born with sensory equipment and reflexes that facilitate their survival and their social interactions with adults. For example, they quickly learn to discriminate their mother’s smell and sound. Researchers use techniques that test habituation, such as the novelty-preference procedure, to explore infants’ abilities.

16

define maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

17

The biological growth process, called ______________, explains why most children begin walking by about 12 to 15 months.

maturation

18

define cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

19

define schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

20

define assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

21

define accommodation

1) in developmental psychology, adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. (2) in sensation and perception, the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

22

define sensorimotor stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to nearly 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

23

define object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

24

define preoperational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

25

define conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

26

define egocentrism

in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

27

define theory of mind

people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

28

define concrete operational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

29

define formal operational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

30

Object permanence, pretend play, conservation, and abstract logic are developmental milestones for which of Piaget’s stages, respectively?

Object permanence for the sensorimotor stage, pretend play for the preoperational stage, conservation for the concrete operational stage, and abstract logic for the formal operational stage.

31

define autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

32

What does theory of mind have to do with autism spectrum disorder?

Theory of mind focuses on our ability to understand our own and others’ mental states. Those with autism spectrum disorder struggle with this ability.

33

define stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

34

define attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

35

define critical period

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

36

define imprinting

the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life

37

What distinguishes imprinting from attachment?

Attachment is the normal process by which we form emotional ties with important others. Imprinting occurs only in certain animals that have a critical period very early in their development during which they must form their attachments, and they do so in an inflexible manner

38

define basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

39

define self concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?"

40

name the three main styles of parenting

(1) authoritarian
(2) permissive
(3) authoritative

41

The three parenting styles have been called “too hard, too soft, and just right.” Which one is “too hard,” which one “too soft,” and which one “just right,” and why?

The authoritarian style would be too hard, the permissive style too soft, and the authoritative style just right. Parents using the authoritative style tend to have children with high self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence.

42

During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop?

The brain’s nerve cells are sculpted by heredity and experience. As a child’s brain develops, neural connections grow more numerous and complex. Experiences then trigger a pruning process, in which unused connections weaken and heavily used ones strengthen. This process continues until puberty. Early childhood is an important period for shaping the brain, but our brain modifies itself in response to our learning throughout life. In childhood, complex motor skills—sitting, standing, walking—develop in a predictable sequence, though the timing of that sequence is a function of individual maturation and culture. We have no conscious memories of events occurring before about age 31/2. This infantile amnesia occurs in part because major brain areas have not yet matured.

43

From the perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, and today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?

In his theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget proposed that children actively construct and modify their understanding of the world through the processes of assimilation and accommodation. They form schemas that help them organize their experiences. Progressing from the simplicity of the sensorimotor stage of the first two years, in which they develop object permanence, children move to more complex ways of thinking. In the preoperational stage (about age 2 to about 6 or 7), they develop a theory of mind. In the preoperational stage, children are egocentric and unable to perform simple logical operations. At about age 7, they enter the concrete operational stage and are able to comprehend the principle of conservation. By about age 12, children enter the formal operational stage and can reason systematically.
Research supports the sequence Piaget proposed, but it also shows that young children are more capable, and their development more continuous, than he believed.
Lev Vygotsky’s studies of child development focused on the ways a child’s mind grows by interacting with the social environment. In his view, parents and caretakers provide temporary scaffolds enabling children to step to higher levels of learning.

44

What is autism spectrum disorder?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder marked by social deficiencies and repetitive behaviors. By age 8, 1 in 68 U.S. children now gets diagnosed with ASD, though the reported rates vary by place. The increase in ASD diagnoses has been offset by a decrease in the number of children with a “cognitive disability” or “learning disability,” suggesting a relabeling of children’s disorders.

45

How do parent-infant attachment bonds form?

At about 8 months, soon after object permanence develops, children separated from their caregivers display stranger anxiety. Infants form attachments not simply because parents gratify biological needs but, more important, because they are comfortable, familiar, and responsive. Many birds and other animals have a more rigid attachment process, called imprinting, that occurs during a critical period.

46

How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned?

Attachment has been studied in strange situation experiments, which show that some children are securely attached and others are insecurely attached. Infants’ differing attachment styles reflect both their individual temperament and the responsiveness of their parents and child-care providers. Adult relationships seem to reflect the attachment styles of early childhood, lending support to Erik Erikson’s idea that basic trust is formed in infancy by our experiences with responsive caregivers.

47

How does childhood neglect or abuse affect children’s attachments?

Children are very resilient, but those who are severely neglected by their parents, or otherwise prevented from forming attachments at an early age, may be at risk for attachment problems.

48

How do children’s self-concepts develop?

Self-concept, an understanding and evaluation of who we are, emerges gradually. By 15 to 18 months, children recognize themselves in a mirror. By school age, they can describe many of their own traits, and by age 8 or 10 their self-image is stable.

49

What are three parenting styles, and how do children’s traits relate to them?

Parenting styles—authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative—reflect varying degrees of control. Children with high self-esteem tend to have authoritative parents and to be self-reliant and socially competent, but the direction of cause and effect in this relationship is not clear. Child-raising practices reflect both individual and cultural values.

50

define adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

51

define puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

52

According to Kohlberg, ______________ morality focuses on self-interest, ______________ morality focuses on self-defined ethical principles, and ______________ morality focuses on upholding laws and social rules.

preconventional
postconventional
conventional

53

define identity

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

54

define social identity

the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships

55

define intimacy

in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in young adulthood

56

define emerging adulthood

a period from about age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many in Western cultures are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults

57

How is adolescence defined, and how do physical changes affect developing teens?

Adolescence is the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to social independence. Boys seem to benefit (though with risks) from “early” maturation, girls from “late” maturation. The brain’s frontal lobes mature and myelin growth increases during adolescence and the early twenties, enabling improved judgment, impulse control, and long-term planning.

58

How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and later researchers describe adolescent cognitive and moral development?

Piaget theorized that adolescents develop a capacity for formal operations and that this development is the foundation for moral judgment. Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a stage theory of moral reasoning, from a preconventional morality of self-interest, to a conventional morality concerned with upholding laws and social rules, to (in some people) a postconventional morality of universal ethical principles. Other researchers believe that morality lies in moral intuition and moral action as well as thinking. Some critics argue that Kohlberg’s postconventional level represents morality from the perspective of individualist, middle-class people.

59

What are the social tasks and challenges of adolescence?

Erikson theorized that each life stage has its own psychosocial task, and that a chief task of adolescence is solidifying one’s sense of self—one’s identity. This often means trying out a number of different roles. Social identity is the part of the self-concept that comes from a person’s group memberships.

60

How do parents and peers influence adolescents?

During adolescence, parental influence diminishes and peer influence increases, in part because of the selection effect—the tendency to choose similar others. But adolescents also do adopt their peers’ ways of dressing, acting, and communicating. Parents have more influence in religion, politics, and college and career choices.

61

What is emerging adulthood?

The transition from adolescence to adulthood is now taking longer. Emerging adulthood is the period from age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many young people are not yet fully independent. But observers note that this stage is found mostly in today’s Western cultures.

62

define meopause

the time of natural cessation of mestration; also refers to the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce dimishes

63

define cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

64

define longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

65

define neurocognitive disorders

acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive deficits; often related to Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury or disease, or substance abuse. In older adults neurocognitive disorders were formerly called dementia

66

define alzhiemers disease

a neurocognitive disorder marked by neural plaques, often with an onset after age 80, and entailing a progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities

67

how do physical changes affect developing teens?

Boys seem to benefit (though with risks) from “early” maturation, girls from “late” maturation. The brain’s frontal lobes mature and myelin growth increases during adolescence and the early twenties, enabling improved judgment, impulse control, and long-term planning.

68

How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and later researchers describe adolescent cognitive and moral development?

Piaget theorized that adolescents develop a capacity for formal operations and that this development is the foundation for moral judgment. Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a stage theory of moral reasoning, from a preconventional morality of self-interest, to a conventional morality concerned with upholding laws and social rules, to (in some people) a postconventional morality of universal ethical principles. Other researchers believe that morality lies in moral intuition and moral action as well as thinking. Some critics argue that Kohlberg’s postconventional level represents morality from the perspective of individualist, middle-class people.

69

define social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

70

What are the social tasks and challenges of adolescence?

Erikson theorized that each life stage has its own psychosocial task, and that a chief task of adolescence is solidifying one’s sense of self—one’s identity. This often means trying out a number of different roles. Social identity is the part of the self-concept that comes from a person’s group memberships.

71

How do parents and peers influence adolescents?

During adolescence, parental influence diminishes and peer influence increases, in part because of the selection effect—the tendency to choose similar others. But adolescents also do adopt their peers’ ways of dressing, acting, and communicating. Parents have more influence in religion, politics, and college and career choices.

72

Freud defined the healthy adult as one who is able to ______________ and to ______________.

love
work

73

What are some of the most significant challenges and rewards of growing old?

Challenges: decline of muscular strength, reaction times, stamina, sensory keenness, cardiac output, and immune system functioning. Risk of cognitive decline increases. Rewards: positive feelings tend to grow, negative emotions are less intense, and anger, stress, worry, and social-relationship problems decrease.

74

What physical changes occur during middle and late adulthood?

Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities, and cardiac output begin to decline in the late twenties and continue to decline throughout middle adulthood (roughly age 40 to 65) and late adulthood (the years after 65). Women’s period of fertility ends with menopause around age 50; men have no similar age-related sharp drop in hormone levels or fertility. In late adulthood, the immune system weakens, increasing susceptibility to life-threatening illnesses. Chromosome tips (telomeres) wear down, reducing the chances of normal genetic replication. But for some, longevity-supporting genes, low stress, and good health habits enable better health in later life.

75

How does memory change with age?

As the years pass, recall begins to decline, especially for meaningless information, but recognition memory remains strong. Older adults rely more on time management and memory cues to remember time-based and habitual tasks. Developmental researchers study age-related changes such as in memory with cross-sectional studies (comparing people of different ages) and longitudinal studies (retesting the same people over a period of years). “Terminal decline” describes the cognitive decline in the final few years of life.

76

How do neurocognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease affect cognitive ability?

Neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) are acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive deficits, which are often related to Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury or disease, or substance abuse. This damage to brain cells results in the erosion of mental abilities that is not typical of normal aging. Alzheimer’s disease is marked by neural plaques, often with an onset after age 80, entailing a progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities.

77

What themes and influences mark our social journey from early adulthood to death?

Adults do not progress through an orderly sequence of age-related social stages. Chance events can determine life choices. The social clock is a culture’s preferred timing for social events, such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. Adulthood’s dominant themes are love and work, which Erikson called intimacy and generativity.

78

How does our well-being change across the life span?

Self-confidence tends to strengthen across the life span. Surveys show that life satisfaction is unrelated to age. Positive emotions increase after midlife and negative ones decrease.

79

A loved one’s death triggers what range of reactions?

People do not grieve in predictable stages, as was once supposed. Strong expressions of emotion do not purge grief, and bereavement therapy is not significantly more effective than grieving without such aid. Erikson viewed the late-adulthood psychosocial task as developing a sense of integrity (versus despair).