Flashcards in Prologue Deck (44):
Who did the first psychological experiment?
Wilhelm Wundt (strict middle aged professor) and his two students
What event defined the start of scientific psychology?
Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory.
Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?
People’s self-reports varied, depending on the experience and the person’s intelligence and verbal ability.
______________ used introspection to define the mind’s makeup; ______________ focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
From the 1920s through the 1960s, the two major forces in psychology were ______________ and ______________ psychology.
How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology?
It recaptured the field’s early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study.
define natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
define evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
define behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature–nurture debate?
Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
define positive psychology
the scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
define levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
define biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychological events?
By incorporating different levels of analysis, the biopsychosocial approach can provide a more complete view than any one perspective could offer.
The ______________ perspective in psychology focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture, while the ______________ perspective emphasizes observation of how we respond to and learn in different situations.
what is the focus of the neuroscience perspective?
how the body and brain enable memories and sensory experiences
what is the focus of the evolutionary perspective?
how natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes
what is the focus of the behavior genetics perspective?
how our genes and environment influence our individual differences
what is the focus of the psychodynamic perspective?
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
what is the focus of the behavioral perspective?
how we learn observable responses
what is the focus of the cognitive perspective?
how we encode process and store information
what is the focus of the social-cultural perspective?
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
what do biological psychologists do?
explore the links between the brain and mind
what do developmental psychologists do?
study our changing abilities form womb to tomb
what do cognitive psychologists do?
experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems
what do personality psychologists do?
investigate our persistent traits
what do social psychologists do?
explore how we view and affect one another.
define applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
what do Industrial-organizational psychologists do?
use psychology’s concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems.
define counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
define clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
define community psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.
early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
define humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential
define cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
the science of behavior and mental processes
define nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
who did the first psychology experiment?
what school of pyschology was wilhelm wundt?