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Flashcards in Prologue Deck (44):
1

Who did the first psychological experiment?

Wilhelm Wundt (strict middle aged professor) and his two students

2

What event defined the start of scientific psychology?

Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory.

3

Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?

People’s self-reports varied, depending on the experience and the person’s intelligence and verbal ability.

4

______________ used introspection to define the mind’s makeup; ______________ focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

structuralism
functionalism

5

From the 1920s through the 1960s, the two major forces in psychology were ______________ and ______________ psychology.

behaviorism
Freudian

6

How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology?

It recaptured the field’s early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study.

7

define natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

8

define evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

9

define behavior genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

10

What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature–nurture debate?

Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone

11

define culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

12

define positive psychology

the scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

13

define levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

14

define biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

15

What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychological events?

By incorporating different levels of analysis, the biopsychosocial approach can provide a more complete view than any one perspective could offer.

16

The ______________ perspective in psychology focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture, while the ______________ perspective emphasizes observation of how we respond to and learn in different situations.

social-cultural
behavioral

17

what is the focus of the neuroscience perspective?

how the body and brain enable memories and sensory experiences

18

what is the focus of the evolutionary perspective?

how natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes

19

what is the focus of the behavior genetics perspective?

how our genes and environment influence our individual differences

20

what is the focus of the psychodynamic perspective?

how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

21

what is the focus of the behavioral perspective?

how we learn observable responses

22

what is the focus of the cognitive perspective?

how we encode process and store information

23

what is the focus of the social-cultural perspective?

how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

24

what do biological psychologists do?

explore the links between the brain and mind

25

what do developmental psychologists do?

study our changing abilities form womb to tomb

26

what do cognitive psychologists do?

experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems

27

what do personality psychologists do?

investigate our persistent traits

28

what do social psychologists do?

explore how we view and affect one another.

29

define applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

30

what do Industrial-organizational psychologists do?

use psychology’s concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems.

31

define counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

32

define clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

33

define psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

34

define community psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

35

define structuralism

early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

36

define functionalism

early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

37

define behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

38

define humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential

39

define cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

40

define psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

41

define nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

42

who did the first psychology experiment?

wilhelm wundt

43

what school of pyschology was wilhelm wundt?

structuralist

44

what school of psychology was edward bradford titchener?

structuralist