Flashcards in CH5 Deck (82)
What is a redox reaction?
A reaction in which something is oxidised and something else is reduced.
Loss of electrons OR oxidation state becoming more positive
Gain of electrons OR oxidation state becoming more negative.
Define standard electrode potential (Eᶿ)
The potential difference when any half-cell is connected to the standard hydrogen electrode under standard conditions
A substance that can react with both acids and bases.
Define inert pair
ns² Pair of electrons not involved in bonding
Define co-ordinate bond
Shared pair of electrons, both from the same atom.
A species created when two molecules join together.
Define electron deficient
A species with fewer than eight electrons in its outer shell, so this shell is not full.
Define lone pair
Pair of electrons in an outer shell that are not involved in bonding
Same number of electrons in the outer shell
Define acidic oxide
Oxide that reacts with bases.
Define basic oxide
Oxide that reacts with acids
A reaction where atoms of the same element become oxidised and reduced to form two different products.
define transition elements
elements with partially filled d-orbitals in their atoms or ions
a small molecule with a lone pair that can bond to a transition metal ion.
define complex (in terms of ligands)
ligands joined to a transition metal by co-ordinate bonds
ligand that has one atom that can bond to a metal ion
ligand that has two atoms that can bond to a metal ion
in terms of rate = k[A]ᵐ[B]ⁱ , what is the overall reaction order?
m + i
define rate determining step
the slowest step in a reaction mechanism
define an acid
H⁺ ion donor (a proton donor)
define a base
H⁺ ion acceptor (a proton acceptor)
what are oxidising agents?
they become reduced as they oxidise something else.
what are reducing agents?
they become oxidised as they reduce something else.
what does the sum of all the oxidation states equal to?
the charge of the species.
for a species with no charge the sum = zero.
when the oxidation states becomes more positive is it oxidation or reduction?
when the oxidation state becomes less positive or more negative, is it oxidation or reduction?
when writing cell diagrams what does ||, | and a comma mean?
|| means the salt bridge
| means a change in state
, goes between species in the same physical state