Flashcards in Challenges Of An Urbanising World Deck (51):
A rise in the percentage of people living in urban areas compared to rural
Urban areas with a population of more than 10 million people
Name 5 causes of urbanisation
Better jobs and services, steady monthly income, escaping natural disasters, escaping extreme weather conditions which destroy crops, necessities like water are difficult to find in rural areas
Describe Detroit’s decline
It once had a population of 1.85 million which decreased to 700,000 due to the decline of its car industry
Define counter urbanisation
The movement of people out of cities into rural areas
An urban settlement where over 50% of people lack basic amenities such as toilets, electricity and running water
Run down areas of the city are regenerated in order to encourage people to move back
Wealthy city dwellers choose to live on the edge of the city to about crime and pollution
Define urban sprawl
The urban area physically grows outward onto surrounding rural land in an uncontrolled way
Define hyper urbanisation
When the increase in urban population is happening so rapidly the city cannot cope with the needs of the people
Describe the structure of the city
Central business district, inner city, inner suburbs, outer suburbs
Where is Mumbai located?
In India in Asia on the west coast in Maharashtra state. It is a peninsula
Give two figures about migration into Mumbai
600 migrants arrive in the city per day, Mumbai is expected to be home to more than 26million people by 2025
The land where the settlement is
Give 3 facts about Mumbai’s site
Much of the city is low lying just above sea level, naturally deep harbour accessible by large ships, lies on an island by the deep water estuary of the Ulhas river
The position of a settlement in relation to other features
Give 2 facts about Mumbai’s situation
Faces towards important regional markets in the Middle East and international markets in Europe, lies 19 degrees north of the equator
How well a place is connected to other places by transport, internet or trade for example
Give a fact about Mumbai’s connectivity
Connected to the rest of India through an extensive road and railway network
Describe Mumbai’s urban rural fringe
Hard to locate, it is spread out into a vast conurbation merging into other towns on the mainland with a population of 22million people
Describe Mumbai’s first surburbs
Developed to house workers in the old textile mill area, home to Mumbai’s largest slum dharavi
Describe Mumbai’s CBD
Centred on the old banking sector of the city, important companies have headquarters here such as Bank of India and Bank of America, housing is expensive, port area is economically very active
Describe Mumbai’s second suburbs
Developed along railway lines allowing commuters to travel into the city each day, new industrial sectors developed here
How has natural increase caused growth?
It is 1.4% per year, a lot of young migrants move and start families
How has national and international migration caused growth?
People move to benefit from improved economy and services for example more jobs, better education, entertainment options and higher incomes
How has economic investment caused growth?
Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and investment has grown, increasing employment. Investment has gone into services, manufacturing, construction, entertainment
Why does traffic congestion occur in Mumbai and what impact does it have?
There are over 1.8 million cars and this puts strain on Mumbai’s railway system which 90% of mumbaikers travel by (8 million every day)
Why do housing shortages occur in Mumbai?
Space is very limited which leads to high population densities so cheaper less congested areas have quickly become congested. Rents in Mumbai are among the highest in the world
What 3 impacts do slum settlements have in Mumbai?
Government does not have to provide for residents, land taken up by slums has become more valuable, slums encourage more migration to Mumbai as it provides a place to live even if you are poor
What 4 impacts does inadequate water supply have on Mumbai?
Standpipes instead of water pipes in slums which are used by hundreds of families, 1 million people access these at 5:30 am for 2 hours, 500 people share public latriny in dharavi, people wash in the same streams they use as toilets
What impact does inadequate waste disposal have on Mumbai?
An estimated 800million tonnes of sewage is dumped in the river
What 5 things do poor employment conditions involve?
Long hours, no protection, rooms without ventilation to remove toxic fumes, low pay, dangerous work
Give 4 facts about the rise of the service sector
Low skilled mumbaikers provide services to other residents, local tour services, finance and it services employ high skilled mumbaikers, unemployment rates in Mumbai lower than other parts of the country
Give 4 facts about dharavi industries
Dharavi is home to 15,000 single room factories, is accessible by both western and central railways, is full of self sufficient people, recycling units boast an annual turnover of £350milliom
What have media companies in Mumbai done?
Over 40% of Mumbai’s residents live in slums and more than 1 million earn less than £10 a month so media companies developed special low cost satellite dishes in order to make profit
Give 9 ways to measure quality of life
Air/water pollution, crime levels, income, healthcare, education, traffic congestion, affordable housing, sanitation, government service
List 3 major problems in Mumbai making quality of life difficult to manage
Inefficient and bureaucratic government means it takes a long time for infrastructure projects to be approved, most of Mumbai’s property is rent controlled which discourages property improvements, corruption has caused the building of apartment blocks only affordable to rich people as oppose to affordable housing
How can the goverment improve access to affordable housing?
Make sure that affordable housing is built as oppose to expensive apartments
How can the government improve working conditions in the informal sector?
Impose new regulations and laws and make sure they were being obeyed
How can the government improve access to services?
Incentivise more companies to provide services in poorer areas of the city
What political decision do the goverment face involving land?
Squatter settlements close to the city centre or railway are in valuable land which could be sold to property developers for a lot of money but it would be too difficult to move residents to another part of the city
Define sustainable city
Provides good quality of life for all without using up resources in a way that means future city residents will have to accept lower quality of life
Identify the 3 elements of the sustainability stool
Environment, society, economy
Describe vision Mumbai
A top down development which built one million low cost homes and tried improving the water supply by establishing piped water and sewerage systems for new flats
Was vision Mumbai successful
No because water quality worsened due to sewage discharge
How was the Gorai garbage site improved?
Waste was reshapes into a gentle hill covered in layers of lining material and planted with grasses, methane capture technology installed to create power
Was the improvement to Gorai garbage site useful?
Yes because the area now has fresh air and a park beside it, in 2014 the scheme was awarded a prize for sustainable development
How was Mumbai’s transport improved?
A monorail was introduced which took passengers off the road however passenger numbers were less than expected (15,000 a day) because the route went through industrial sectors rather than the old city
Describe SPARC and community toilet blocks
An Indian NGO worked with mumbai to build 800 toilet blocks connected to city sewers and water supplies , families purchase a monthly permit for 25 rupees
Describe Hamara foundation
Provides social work services for street children (327 in 2023-14) to help improve their education, health and job skills and provide vocational training in computing, motor mechanics and hospitality