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Flashcards in Challenges Of An Urbanising World Deck (70):

Define urbanisation

A rise in the percentage of people living in urban areas compared to rural


Define megacity

Urban areas with a population of more than 10 million people


Name 5 causes of urbanisation

Better jobs and services, steady monthly income, escaping natural disasters, escaping extreme weather conditions which destroy crops, necessities like water are difficult to find in rural areas


Describe Detroit’s decline

It once had a population of 1.85 million which decreased to 700,000 due to the decline of its car industry


Define counter urbanisation

The movement of people out of cities into rural areas


Define slum

An urban settlement where over 50% of people lack basic amenities such as toilets, electricity and running water


Define regeneration

Run down areas of the city are regenerated in order to encourage people to move back


Define suburbanisation

Wealthy city dwellers choose to live on the edge of the city to about crime and pollution


Define urban sprawl

The urban area physically grows outward onto surrounding rural land in an uncontrolled way


Define hyper urbanisation

When the increase in urban population is happening so rapidly the city cannot cope with the needs of the people


Describe the structure of the city

Central business district, inner city, inner suburbs, outer suburbs


Where is Mumbai located?

In India in Asia on the west coast in Maharashtra state. It is a peninsula


Give 3 facts about migration into Mumbai

1000 migrants arrive in the city per day, Mumbai is expected to be home to more than 26million people by 2025, between 2001 and 2011 1.7million migrants


Define site

The land where the settlement is


Give 3 facts about Mumbai’s site

Much of the city is low lying just above sea level, naturally deep harbour accessible by large ships, lies on an island by the deep water estuary of the Ulhas river


Define situation

The position of a settlement in relation to other features


Give 3 facts about Mumbai’s situation

Faces towards important regional markets in the Middle East and international markets in Europe, lies 19 degrees north of the equator,close to Europe via the Suez Canal


Define connectivity

How well a place is connected to other places by transport, internet or trade for example


Give 4 facts about Mumbai’s connectivity

Connected to the rest of India through an extensive road and railway network, waterfront is 10km long allowing huge port (India’s second largest), shipping times are 5 days shorter than from Kolkata on the East coast, Mumbai is 9 hours from UK airports


Give 2 points about Mumbai’s urban rural fringe

Hard to locate as the area has sprawled into nearby towns, rural areas only found where land is not suitable for building e.g the river estuary land and the large area of National Park in the hills to the north of Mumbai


Give 2 points about Mumbai’s first surburbs

Developed to house workers in the old textile mill area in 1900s-1930s, home to Mumbai’s largest slum dharavi


Give 5 points about Mumbai’s CBD

Centred on the old banking sector of the city, important companies have headquarters here such as Bank of India and Bank of America, housing is expensive, port area is economically very active, up to 25000 people work here and live in slums nearby


Give 2 points about Mumbai’s second suburbs

Developed along railway lines post 1970s allowing commuters to travel into the New Mumbai each day, new industrial sectors developed here


How has natural increase caused growth?

It is 1.4% per year, a lot of young migrants move and start families


How has national and international migration caused growth?

People move to benefit from improved economy and services for example more jobs, better education, entertainment options and higher incomes


How has economic investment caused growth?

Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and investment has grown, increasing employment. Investment has gone into services, manufacturing, construction, entertainment


Why does traffic congestion occur in Mumbai?

Over 1.8 million cars so roads are usually grid locked


Why do housing shortages occur in Mumbai?

Space is very limited which leads to high population densities so cheaper less congested areas have quickly become congested. Rents in Mumbai are among the highest in the world


What 3 impacts do slum settlements have in Mumbai?

Government does not have to provide for residents, land taken up by slums has become more valuable, slums encourage more migration to Mumbai as it provides a place to live even if you are poor


What 4 impacts does inadequate water supply have on Mumbai?

Standpipes instead of water pipes in slums which are used by hundreds of families, 1 million people access these at 5:30 am for 2 hours, 500 people share public latriny in dharavi, people wash in the same streams they use as toilets, 60% of population uses communal taps


What impact does inadequate waste disposal have on Mumbai?

An estimated 800million tonnes of sewage is dumped in the river


What 5 things do poor employment conditions involve?

Long hours, no protection, rooms without ventilation to remove toxic fumes, low pay, dangerous work


Give 4 facts about the rise of the service sector

Low skilled mumbaikers provide services to other residents, local tour services, finance and it services employ high skilled mumbaikers, unemployment rates in Mumbai lower than other parts of the country


Give 5 facts about dharavi industries

Dharavi is home to 15,000 single room factories, is accessible by both western and central railways, is full of self sufficient people, recycling units boast an annual turnover of £350million, 5000 small scale businesses exist


What have media companies in Mumbai done?

Over 40% of Mumbai’s residents live in slums and more than 1 million earn less than £10 a month so media companies developed special low cost satellite dishes in order to make profit


Give 9 ways to measure quality of life

Air/water pollution, crime levels, income, healthcare, education, traffic congestion, affordable housing, sanitation, government service


List 3 major problems in Mumbai making quality of life difficult to manage

Inefficient and bureaucratic government means it takes a long time for infrastructure projects to be approved, most of Mumbai’s property is rent controlled which discourages property improvements, corruption has caused the building of apartment blocks only affordable to rich people as oppose to affordable housing


How can the goverment improve access to affordable housing?

Make sure that affordable housing is built as oppose to expensive apartments


How can the government improve working conditions in the informal sector?

Impose new regulations and laws and make sure they were being obeyed


How can the government improve access to services?

Incentivise more companies to provide services in poorer areas of the city


What political decision do the goverment face involving land?

Squatter settlements close to the city centre or railway are in valuable land which could be sold to property developers for a lot of money but it would be too difficult to move residents to another part of the city


Define sustainable city

Provides good quality of life for all without using up resources in a way that means future city residents will have to accept lower quality of life


Identify the 3 elements of the sustainability stool

Environment, society, economy


Describe vision Mumbai

A top down development which invested $40billion to improve Mumbai, built one million low cost homes and tried improving the water supply by establishing piped water and sewerage systems for new flats


What were the negatives of Vision Mumbai?

Water quality worsened due to surface run off in built up areas, many people would have preferred slum improvement (piped water and sewage treatment) to demolition, new 14 storey apartment blocks have split communities, rents cost more than in slums, small workshops had to move or go out to business which affects Mumbai's recycling industry, beaches unsafe for recreation


How was the Gorai garbage site improved?

Waste was reshapes into a gentle hill covered in layers of lining material and planted with grasses, methane capture technology installed to create power


Was the improvement to Gorai garbage site useful?

Yes because the area now has fresh air and a park beside it, in 2014 the scheme was awarded a prize for sustainable development


How and when was Mumbai’s transport improved? 3 ways

A monorail was introduced in 2005 and tickets were cheap at 11 rupees, by 2015 72 new trains were introduced, platforms raised to prevent people falling between trains


Describe SPARC and community toilet blocks

An Indian NGO worked with mumbai to build 800 toilet blocks connected to city sewers and water supplies , families purchase a monthly permit for 25 rupees


Describe Hamara foundation

Provides social work services for street children (327 in 2013-14) to help improve their education, health and job skills and provide vocational training for 16-18 year olds in computing, motor mechanics and hospitality


Describe agora micro finance India

A banking service specialising in micro finance for Mumbai’s slum residents and providing loans for people wanting to improve their homes or businesses, people can gain up to £300 and interest rate is 25% paid in weekly instalments


What is an example of poor employment conditions in Mumbai?

In the port men dismantle ships using basic tools and without safety equipment


What 2 impacts does traffic congestion have on Mumbai?

Strain on Mumbai’s railway system which 90% of mumbaikers travel by (8 million every day), 3500 people die on Mumbai’s railways most of which by hanging from the windows and doors of overcrowded trains


Where do Mumbai’s residents live?

40% in slums, 20% in chawls, 10% on streets, 30% in apartments or bungalows


How much do upper middle class Mumbaikers earn?

£1250 per month


When and why did the Gorai garbage site need to be improved?

2007 because every day 1200 tonnes of waste were put in it and it released methane


How did the government improve air quality to make Mumbai more sustainable?

The government banned diesel vehicles with an engine capacity greater than 2000cc


What is LSS?

Health charity trying to control leprosy, in the 1980s it had 4000 patients by 2007 there were only 219 cases. It educates people about symptoms and treatment


What 3 problems did Vision Mumbai try to solve?

Worsening quality of life (slums have multiplied, traffic congestion, pollution and water quality all worse than 2000)


How successful was Vision Mumbai? 4 facts

By 2007, 200,000 people were moved and 450,000 homes were demolished, piped water and sewerage systems were established for new flats which replaced slums, in 2015 new measures introduced to improve air quality


Why was the monorail unsuccessful?

This took passengers off the road however passenger numbers were less than expected (15,000 a day) because the route went through industrial sectors rather than the old city (didn't target the needs of the people)


Why did the Gorai Garbage Site need to be improved? 4 facts

From 1972 to 2007, 1200 tonnes of Mumbai's solid waste was deposited at the Gorai landfill site every day, by 2007 the waste was 27 metres deep and emitting unpleasant smelling methane and toxic run off into a nearby creek, one of the unhealthiest parts of Mumbai in which to live


What is a long term positive of SPARC community toilet blocks?

Families have access to sanitation which improves healthcare and life expectancy


What problem with housing does rapid growth of megacities cause?

Housing shortages result in people living in squatter settlements without access to basic supplies


What problem with sanitation does rapid growth of megacities cause?

Low percentage of people are connected to public sewer systems and septic tanks/pit latrines can overflow into open drains which leads to spread of disease


What risk to health does rapid growth of megacities cause?

Increased air pollution caused by traffic congestion causes serious health problems like breathing problems


What problem with employment does rapid growth of megacities cause?

The majority of employment in developing countries is informal where workers have no protection and hours are long


What does a suburban street pattern indicate on a map?

Residential area


What does a high density concentration of buildings on a map indicate?

Commercial land use


Give 2 reasons why informal employment has grown rapidly in some cities

Not enough jobs in formal sector to cater for rapid population growth, large number of rural migrants have a skill shortage for formal employment in the city