Flashcards in Development Dynamics Deck (102):
Define level of development
A country’s wealth and social and political progress
Identify 5 things which classify Malawi as developing
GDP per capita of $900, 53% living below poverty line, 83% access safe drinking water, literacy rate of 61%, HDI of 0.41
Identify 5 things which classify India as emerging
GDP per capita of $5800, 30% living below poverty line, 94% access safe drinking water, literacy rate of 74%, HDI of 0.59
Identify 5 things which classify the UK as developed
GDP per capita is $37300, 16.2% living under poverty line, 100% access safe drinking water, 99% literacy rate, 0.89 HDI
The total value of goods a country produces in a year
Define poverty line
The minimum income required to meet someone’s basic needs - the world bank uses $1.25 per person per day
A measure made up of literacy rate, average years of schooling, life expectancy and GDP per capita. A rank from 0-1 and the higher the better
Define access to safe drinking water
The percentage of the population with access to a piped water supply within 1km
Define literacy rate
The percentage of the population over 15 who can read and write
Define corruptions perceptions index
A measure of how corrupt a government is (0 corrupt, 10 honest) which helps companies work out how safe their money would be invested in a country
Define birth rate
The number of live births per 1000 per year
Define death rate
The number of deaths per 1000 per year
Define dependency ratio
Proportion of people above of below average working age (under 15 and over 65) which is calculated by number of dependents divided by number of workers x 100
Define fertility rate
The average number of births per woman
Define infant mortality
The number of children per 1000 who die before they are one
Define life expectancy
The number of years a person can expect to live
Define maternal mortality
The number of mothers per 100,000 who die in childbirth
Why is birth rate higher in developing countries?
In developed countries women go to universities and pursue careers meaning they settle down to have children later in life and have less children
Why is life expectancy higher in developed countries?
More advanced healthcare and better sanitation in developed countries
What is the Brandt line and what year was it established?
1980, shows the developed in the global north and the developing in the global south
When did middle income counties start to develop and why?
1989s due to large reserves of raw materials encouraging investment and growth
When did newly industrialised counties begin to develop and why?
1990s due to relocation of manufacturing overseas by US & European TNCs
When did RICs begin to develop and why?
2000s due to recent industrialisation
Why have few LCDs developed?
Many are still subsistence farmers
Why is being landlocked a barrier to development?
Having no port means a country is unable to export or import goods
Why is being isolated a barrier to development?
Farmers find it difficult to get their produce to market and factories will not want to locate there
Why is climate change a barrier to development?
Temperatures rising increases evaporation leading to water shortages. Variable rainfall leads to food shortages and drought. Rivers dry up and crop yields fall
Why is pollution a barrier to development?
Water supplies become contaminated during the rainy season due to surface run off in built up areas which can pose risks to human health. Increasing air pollution reduces air quality
Why are terms of trade a barrier to development?
If imports are higher than exports a country will lose money
Why are colonisation and cash crops a barrier to development?
The developed countries profit because income goes there and estate workers are paid very little. The price of cash crops is determined on the global market
Why are global trade and international relations barriers to development?
Tariffs are added to goods meaning developed countries take a percentage of the profit
What are the five stages of the modernisation theory?
The traditional society, pre conditions for take off, take off, drive to maturity, high mass consumption
Describe the traditional society
Most people work in agriculture as subsistence farmers and live in rural areas
Describe pre conditions for take off
A shift from agriculture to manufacturing and trade with other countries increases
Describe take off
Manufacturing industries grow rapidly from investment in infrastructure and new technologies. Economy and urban populations increase
Describe drive to maturity
Heavy industry replaced by new industries producing consumer goods. Economy grows steadily
Describe high mass consumption
A period of comfort where consumers enjoy a wide range of goods. GDP is spent on education, healthcare, military strength
Describe the dependency theory
Demonstrates that some developing countries will be unable to develop as their imports will be higher than their exports and they will lose money
Give 3 facts about India’s site
Located in the south of Asia, the tropic of cancer runs through the country, 7500km long coastline
What is the monsoon and why is it important to India?
A very rainy season lasting May-September which supports the farmers, is good for crops and provides water supply
Describe the caste system
Separates Hindus into four categories, indentifying who is lower than eachother. Lowest caste is the untouchables. People may not marry outside of their caste
Why is India in dispute with Pakistan and why are counties concerned about this?
Fought four wars over the control of Cashmir as Pakistan controls the north and India the south, both countries own nuclear weapons which are highly destructive
What is the Indian diaspora and why is it important to India’s economy?
20million people who are living abroad, money gets invested into India’s economy and increases development
What is the population of India and how is this distributed?
2nd largest in the world at 1.324 billion, 50% of the population live in 6 out of the 29 states
Identify 4 strengths of India’s economy
Speaks English, large population, located next to countries with large economies, in the UN and G20
Identify 3 weaknesses of India’s economy
The caste system, population distribution, conflict with Pakistan
How has India’s GDP changed in the space of 23 years?
In 1991 it was 1.2 trillion and by 2014 it reached 7.3 trillion
How have India’s imports and exports changed over 17 years?
In 1995 they were about $30billion but by 2012 imports were $450billion and exports were $275billion
How has the percentage of people working in agriculture changed over 30 years?
Decreased from 37% in 1980-81 to 19% in 2010-11
How has economic liberalisation helped India develop?
Indian workers are paid less than elsewhere therefore countries are encouraged to put their business here
How has investment in education helped India develop?
Causes an increase in literacy rate and decrease in unemployment rate which are factors taken into account when observing level of development
How has investment in transport and communications technology helped India develop?
India can trade easier and companies can communicate with parts of their business in India
How has outsourcing of services helped India develop?
Companies realise that labour costs are lower in India but workers are just as skilled which creates jobs and increases income
How have TNCs helped India develop?
They bring foreign direct investment into the country which contributes to income
How has tourism helped India develop?
Tourists spend money which contributes to the economy
How has death rate changed over 23 years?
In 1991 it was 10 but in 2014 it was 7.35
How is wealth unevenly distributed in India?
Small states such as Goa and Delhi have higher GDPs at 4903 and 4642 GDP per capita in US dollars respectively. However in larger states e.g Bihar and Uttar Pradesh GDP per capita is as low as 682 and 793 respectively
Why have men in India benefitted more than women?
More men are able to go to school and have access to higher skilled jobs
Why have young people benefitted more than old people?
Education systems have improved which is accessible by the young people to improve their education
Why have people in urban areas benefitted more than in rural?
FDI from TNCs is concentrated in urban areas
Name 7 causes of river pollution in India
Peoples remains, washing clothes, cleaning themselves, fertilisers, garbage, leather tanning industry (factories have doubled in a decade), toxic chemicals
Name 4 effects of river pollution in India
Chromium is a carcinogen, risk of skin disease, numbness in the limbs caused, power plants and dams affected
Name 3 causes of air pollution in India
The sale of trucks which has increased by 16.2%, use of dirty diesel, burning of an estimated 500million tonnes of post-harvest stubble
Name 3 effects of air pollution in India
India is considered to have 13 of the worlds 20 most polluted cities,Delhi’s smoggy winters exceed the WHO safe level by 10 times, caused 586,788 premature deaths in India in 2013, reduces life expectancy by 3.2 year for Indians who live in cities
Give 4 facts about India’s growing economic strength
Second largest market in the world, foreign exchange reserves of over $300billion which were $2billion in 1950, on track to become an upper middle income country by 2025 and the worlds third largest economy by 2050
What is the new development bank?
Set up by the BRICS in order to provide resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in emerging developing countries
Why did the G20 form?
Countries realised globalisation had changed the worlds economic order in a big way and major global problems required a much greater level of economic cooperation
By how much has life expectancy in India increased?
from 59.7 in 1991 to 68 in 2014
How many people still live below the poverty line in India?
Name 3 positives of the Narmada river scheme
Provide 3.5 billion litres of drinking water daily, provide hydroelectric power, a network of canals will irrigate 1.8 million hectares of farmland
Name 4 negatives of the Narmada river scheme
Flooded 234 villages, forced 320,000 people out of their homes, good quality farmland along with religious and historic sites has been flooded, seismologists believe the weight of large dams can trigger earthquakes
Define top down project
Projects run by the goverment which tend to be expensive and involve a lot of technology, they impact on a lot of people and are usually designed for the whole population’s benefit
Define bottom up project
Organised by NGOs and local communities and outside agencies in order to identify the needs of a specific group of people and improve their quality of life, these projects are cheap and smaller scale
Define informal economy
The unofficial economy where no records are kept, workers pay tax but have no contracts or right to safe working practices
Define formal economy
The official economy where tax is paid and workers have contracts and right to safe working conditions
Identify the primary industry
The extraction of raw materials from the ground or sea
Identify the secondary industry
The manufacture of goods using raw materials
Identify the tertiary industry
The provision of a service
The provision of information and expert help
What does the clark-fisher sector model show?
Post industrialisation employment becomes more based upon tertiary industry and primary industry which was previously the most common becomes less popular
Give 3 facts about India’s situation
International borders with 6 countries including China, Bay of Bengal to East, Arabian Sea to West
How much has India’s GNI increased by?
From $1150 in 1991 to $5800 in 2014
How much has FDI increased by in India?
From $5.6 billion in 1995 to $252.3 billion in 2014
Give 2 facts about India’s culture
Birthplace of 4 religions including Hinduism, worlds largest film industry located there (bollywood) which produces over 1200 films per year
Give 4 facts about India’s environment
Very biodiverse with 6% of the worlds plant and bird species, worlds 3rd largest emitter of greenhouse gases, New Delhi is the most polluted city as it has 9 million cars, sewage for 450 million people enters rivers but only 20% is treated
What are communications like in India?
2nd largest wireless internet network in the World
Give 3 facts about transport in India
Road system has doubled in length, 12 major and 185 minor seaports where 70% of trade occurs, 11 international and 86 domestic airports
Why does India attract TNCs?
It has a large, well educated, English speaking population. The government has reduced taxes in Bangalore to encourage TNCS and BT to do software development in the area
Give a fact about multilateral aid in India
India has been given the most international aid in history although this is declining as the country develops
Give 4 facts about education in India
Education is free and compulsory for all 6-14 year olds, more than 1.4 million schools and 36,000 higher education facilities, literacy rate increased from 64.8% in 2001 to 74% in 2011
How much has the percentage of people living in urban areas increased and why?
From 25% in 1990 to 33% by 2015 due to rural urban migration
How much did the number of polluted rivers rise by in India between 2010 and 2015 and why?
121-275 due to extra sewage
How much has HDI increased in India?
From 0.38 in 1991 to 0.59 in 2014
How much has unemployment fallen by in India?
from 20% in 1991 to 8.6% in 2014
How much has the average years a child spends at school rose by in India?
12 years at school up from 2 years in 1991
How much does land degradation cost a year?
Who are the BRICS?
Brazil, Russia, India, China
How much of the worlds GDP do the BRICS have together?
How much imports and exports are there between India and the USA?
45,200 million exports, 21,600 million imports
What percentage of the population did women make up in 2012?
What is a risk of India’s development?
TNCS can move out of a country quickly and exploit workers