Change Flashcards Preview

Visceral Disorders > Change > Flashcards

Flashcards in Change Deck (53)
Loading flashcards...
1

What governs the labs utilized by chiropractors

CLIA (clinical laboratory improvement amendments)

2

A patient with a UTI may have a subluxation where

Lumbar region

3

Liver disease may present with subluxations where

T5-T9

4

What are the s/s to order a UA

LBP, painful urination (dysuria), hematuria, suprapubic pain, urethral or vaginal discharge, frequent urination, inability, polydipsia, polyphagia

5

What is the functional unit of the kidney

Nephron

6

When is the best time to collect the specimen

Early morning, most concentrated

7

Hydration and concentration is roughly indicated by what in urine

Color

8

Red or dark brown urine is seen when

Excessive hemoglobin, RBS, myoglobin. lots of diseases associated with these s/s

9

Yellow urine + Red blood = ?

Smoky urine

10

What color urine is found with dehydration from fever,
vomiting, certain foods (rhubarb, Vit C, carrots),
medications

Orange

11

What color urine is found to be bright yellow

Excessive B Vitamins

12

What color urine is found with alkaptonuria, melanin problems like
malignant melanoma

Black

13

What color urine is found with diabetes insipidus or
over hydration associated with low SpG; diabetes
insipidus associated with decrease pituitary ADH (eg.,
head trauma)

Colorless

14

What color urine is found with liver
problems check bilirubin and urobilinogen
may also be referred to as dark yellow
may see jaundice of skin and sclera and other
findings possible for hepatitis/liver disease
(SGOT,SGPT, RUQ pain)

Brownish yellow/green

15

What color urine is found associated with hyperlipidemia (risk
factor for heart disease)

Milky

16

Hazy or cloudy urine is usually due to what

Infection

17

Frothy urine is associated with what

Protein

18

What does specific gravity measure

Kidneys ability to concentrate the urine (inability is a sign of early renal disease)

19

Isosthenuria, fixed SpG at 1.010, the same as protein free plasma, signifies what

End stage renal failure

20

Increased SpG has more "stuff" in it

Decreased SpG is more dilute urine

21

What is the normal pH range

4.5-7.5. Acidic <7, Alkaline >7

22

What conditions are associated with acidic pH's

Respiratory acidosis (emphysema), metabolic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetes mellitus, lots of meats and cranberries

23

What conditions are associated with alkaline pH's

Respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation), metabolic alkalosis, UTI, E. coli, bacillus proteus (inc blue/cranberry juices), high veggies and citrus

24

What is proteinuria used synonymously with

Albuminuria

25

What normally prevents protein from entering the glomerular filtrate

Glomerulus

26

Why must you always investigate proteinuria

Primary indicator of renal disease

27

What does a positive dipstick need to be confirmed with

Sulfosalicylic acidic precipitation (detects all proteins)

28

Strenuous exercise, exposure to cold, large abdomen, pregnancy, dehydration and febrile illness all increase the risk of

Proteinuria

29

What is massive proteinuria

Nephrotic Syndrome

30

How may the urine appear in nephrotic syndrome

frothy

31

Severe edema can be seen where in nephrotic syndrome

around the eyes

32

Nephrotic syndrome is associated with what

toxins, bee stings, severe infections, and polycystic kidney

33

What test should be run on all patient's with a 4+ protein

Bence Jones test

34

What condition and xray sign may be a strong indicator for Bence Jones test

Multiple myeloma and Rain drop skull

35

What is multiple myeloma

Malignant proliferation of plasma cells (produce antibodies)

36

What urine protein is the bence jones protein

light chain

37

What tests are used for finding a monoclonal immunoglobulin in urine

Urine protein electrophoresis and urine immunofixation

38

T/F: A routine UA will detect Bence Jones proteins

FALSE, it will not

39

What are the definitive tests for immunoglobulins in urine

Electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis

40

If labs look like lytic mets what is the protocol

Bone scan, MRI, Biopsy

41

If labs look like Multiple Myeloma, what is the protocol

PEP (urine and blood), skeletal survey, MRI, Biopsy

42

What is usually ordered when the protein electrophoresis test shows the presence of an abnormal protein band that may be an immunoglobulin

Immunofixation electrophoresis

43

When may glucosuria be seen

Immediately after eating a high carb meal, also with kidney disease

44

Hyperglycemia and Glucosuria are classically seen in what condition

Diabetes mellitus

45

When are ketones produced

Lack of available sugar getting to the cells due to lack of insulin

46

what are ketones produced as a byproduct to

Fat metabolism

47

Unconjugated bilirubin cannot pass what

glomerular filter

48

What does a positive test for urine bilirubin confirm

That any raised plasma levels are from conjugated hyperbilirubinemia

49

What kind of bilirubin is prehepatic

Unconjugated

50

What are the main cause of biliary obstruction (cholecystitis)

Gallstones (wait and see)

51

What typically results from m. trauma due to crushing inj or MI. Occult blood w/o elevated RBC's

Myoglobinuria

52

If there are increased RBCs what is is called

Yellow: Microhematuria
Red/pink/smoky: Hematuria

53

TNTC

Too numerous to count