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1

Physiological hypertorphy

Uterus during pregnancy-->SM cells get largers (but note these cells can also divide)
Skeletal muscle-->by over working

2

Causes of hypertrophy (3)

Mechanical stimulus - cardiac and skeletal muscle hypertrophy

Growth factor stimulation - endocrine stimulation at puberty - not a good example

increased functional demad - unilateral nephrectormy -->take out one, other one grows--glomeruli get huge

3

Hypertrophy

increase in size of cells leading to an increase in size of tissue

4

Pathological hypertrophy

heart because of hypertension-->short term this is good to pump against a pressure gradient but in the long term that's a problem

5

In Myocardial hypertrophy the size

increases

6

What happens to ANF in myocardial hypertrophy

it is normally not expressed but gets expressed to decrease cell volume, lowering load and lowering pressure

7

Proteins expressed in Myocardial hypertrophy (6)

c-fos, jun, EGRF, fetal contractile proteins (beta myosin-more energy efficient but dec atpase activity), growth factors (TGF -beta, IGF -1)

8

What is the end result of myocardial hypertrophy

degeneration

9

Causes of hyperplasia

viral incuduced - warts
growth factor stimulation - endocrine or stress- induced
ex. endometrial proliferation with each menstral cycle
callus formation
erythroid hyperplasia under chronic hypoxic conditions

10

The hearts of well trained athletes have vs myocardial hypertrophy

good ability to dialate and increase stroke volume vs only an increase in heart rate

11

Hyperplasia

inc in no. of cells resulting in inc size

12

Mechanisms of atrophy

inc catabolism
inc ubiquitin proteosome pathway
inc lysosomal degredation

13

Physiological hyperplasia

lactating breast

14

causes of metaplasia

chronic irritation - squamous metaplasia in respiratory tract in response to tobacco smoke
chronic gerd - distal esophagus change in response to gastric acid (barrot's esophagus)

15

Dysplasia

abnormal or disorderly growth recognized by a change in size shape and or organization of cells within a tissue

16

Pathological hyperplasia

overstimulation by hormones e.g. enlargement of the prostate; inc risk of cancer

17

Atrophy

decrease in size and often fn of cells, generally associated with a decrease in size and or fn of a tissue or organ

18

Causes of Atrophy (7)

Disues atrophy of muscle - voluntary or denervation-induced dec blood supply inadequate nutrition loss of endocrine stimulation loss of growth factors aging pressure

19

Metaplasia

replacement of one differentiated cell type by another with change in stem cell differentiation

20

Anaplasia

complete loss of morphological differentiation

21

Alcoholism sublethal changes in the liver (5)

fatty change
alcoholic hyaline
megamitochondria
mitochondrial crystals
proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum

22

Neoplasia

autonomous new growth

23

Pompe

glycogen accumulates in the body, specifically in the heart and child dies by age of 2 from heart failure

24

Protein accumulation

proteinuria and resoption in proximal tubules
excess secretory protein: russell bodies in plasma cells
defects in folding and transport: alpha1 antitrysin deficiency, cystic fibrosis, familial hypercholesterolemia
protein damage

25

Benign neoplasia

fibroids

26

Malignant neoplasia

carcinoma

27

Cellular accumulations (5)

lipids (fats and cholesterol) Proteins Hyalin change glycogen pigments

28

Lipofuscin

insolulbe brownish yellow intracellular pigment that accumulates with age
complexes of lipid and protein derived from peroxidation of polyunsaturated lipids of subcellular membranes

29

Hyaline in liver

intermediate filaments

30

Mineral and Pigment deposition

hemosiderin