Flashcards in Changing Cities Deck (120):
What is urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas
What is the distribution of the urban population globally?
50% of people live in urban areas
47 megacities (10 million +)
emerging countries have been recently urbanising rapidly
How many people live in urban areas globally?
How many megacities are there?
What are the trends in urbanisation for developed countries and why has this happened? (3 + facts for each)
1. urbanised in the 1800s due to industrialisation - mechanisation in farming and increase of factory jobs (UK cities grew by 10% a year 1830-90)
2. unpredictable crop nature led to failure and famine (potato famine in Ireland killed 1 million in 1840-50)
3. transportation improved (e.g. 1940s railway)
How much did UK cities grow in the 19th century?
10% per year between 1830-90
When was the potato famine in Ireland and why did it occur?
1840-50 - killed 1 million due to unpredictable crop nature
When did UK railways improve?
What are the push factors for rural to urban migration in a developing country? (3)
Push Factors from BIHAR:
1. Green Revolution and mechanisation - loss of farming jobs
2. Indian tradition to split land equally between sons leads to plots of land too small to support a family
3. education/healthcare is poor as people don't want to work in the impoverished countryside
What are the pull factors for rural to urban migration in a developing country? (3 + facts)
1. better jobs - 30,000 rupees average income in Mumbai per year
2. healthcare/education better - 3 universities in Mumbai
3. investment into Mumbai from Indian government and international agencies e.g. UN improving water supplies - also means more employment
How many universities are there in Mumbai?
How much is average income in Mumbai?
30,000 rupees per year
Give an example of an international agency investing in Mumbai.
the UN in public works - improving water supplies means employment and better infrastructure as a result
How has urbanisation occurred naturally?
High birth rate in developing countries - e.g. by lack of contraception, education, need children for work or to compensate for high infant mortality
What are the generic effects of urbanisation in developing (2) and developed (2) countries? (facts for each)
1. Squatter settlements develop e.g. Dharavi e.g. 1 million per square mile
2. air/noise/water pollution e.g. 4,000 cases of diarrhoea, diphtheria and typhoid daily in Dharavi
3. investment increases e.g. London contributes 21.9% to UK economy
4. Gap between rich and poor increases
How many people live in Dharavi?
1 million per square mile
How many cases of disease are there per day in Dharavi?
4,000 cases of diarrhoea, diphtheria and typhoid daily
How much does London contribute to the UK economy?
What are the factors that cause urbanisation to vary? (4)
1. historical factors
2. recent economic factors
3. political factors
4. physical factors
How do physical factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?
flat land - more accessible - infrastructure more developed - increased connectivity - businesses locate there
How do political factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?
- London is centre of UK governance - encourages growth
What is the distribution of urban areas in the UK?
1. distribution is uneven
2. population density generally lower in the North than the South
3. London has highest population density of 5000 people /km²
4. Liverpool and Portsmouth 3000+ people /km²
5. overall population density of 266 /km²
What is the population density of London?
5000 people /km²
Which cities have a population of 3000+ people /km²
Liverpool and Portsmouth
Why does the rate of urbanisation differ between regions in the UK? (3)
1. relief of land in North makes if difficult to build - so fewer major cities
2. cooler climate in north makes living in the area difficult due to extreme weather
3. location of ports provide opportunities with industry/employment e.g. Liverpool has population density of over 3,000 people /km²
What is the overall population density of the UK?
266 people /km²
How do recent economic factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?
change to tertiary and quaternary sector (e.g. science development) means people locate to cities - good transportation and communication links required (money needed)
How do historical factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?
industrial revolution - rapid growth of factory towns - industrial cities grew rapidly - UK cities grew by 10% a year between 1830-90
What has been done to improve quality of life in Birmingham?
1. worked with "Healthy Villages" to improve health and wellbeing for residents by improving access services
2. 2012 community centre set up in Sparkbrook - 3 GP practices, a library and offices for local set up
3. Youth Promise introduced to provide employment for 14-25 year olds
4. Birmingham Education Partnership - recruit and retrain teachers in the area
What does Healthy Villages do?
improves health and wellbeing of residents in Birmingham by improving access to services
What was set up in 2012?
a community centre in Sparkbrook that provided 3 GP practices, a library and offices for local set up
What did the Youth Promise promise? (haha get it)
to provide employment for 14-25 year olds
What policy aims to retrain and recruit teachers in Birmingham?
Birmingham Education Partnership
What is the impact of the changes in retailing on the city centre? (3)
1. growth of out-of-town shopping centres which offered cheaper prices took customers out of the centre
2. shops in CBD lost customers and made less money - causing some shops to close down (12% decline in CBD trade between 1990-95)
3. CBD redevelopment and pedestrianisation to appeal to shoppers e.g. Bull Ring 2003 saw growth in trade
How much did Birmingham's CBD decline as out-of-town locations began to emerge?
12% decline in CBD trade between 1990-95
Give an example of a redevelopment to encourage shoppers in the CBD.
the Bull Ring 2003 and most recently Birmingham Grand Central
What are the causes of deindustrialisation? (4)
3. technological advancements
How did de-centralisation cause deindustrialisation?
suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation shifted focus away from city centre and caused declines in the inner city and industry
How did transport cause deindustrialisation?
development of aerospace technology meant more competition from abroad causing outsourcing of manufacturing e.g. MG Rover in Longbridge outsourced production to Japan
How did technological advancements cause deindustrialisation?
communication increase means businesses can become footloose and operate abroad e.g. 88% of households own a computer in the UK
How did globalisation cause deindustrialisation?
more competition from abroad due to technological advancements
What are the causes of international migration to Birmingham? (2 + facts)
1. employee shortages in the past meant people moved for employment - 22% of Birmingham born outside of UK
2. fleeing conflict - Birmingham pledged to take 500 Syrian refugees
How many Syrian refugees is Birmingham pledged to take over the next 5 years?
What percentage of Birmingham's population is born outside of the UK?
What are the causes of national migration to Birmingham?
increased investment in CBD creates more jobs - attractive for students 2nd largest Student population
- population over 1.1 million
What is the population of Birmingham?
What are the causes of national migration out of Birmingham?
elderly move out to retirement destinations e.g. Bournemouth
What is reurbanisation?
the movement of people back to the centre of urban areas
What are the features of reurbanisation? (2)
1. occur in areas close to work/amenities
2. usually follows regeneration - often of old industrial buildings
Give an example of reurbanisation.
City Flats in Mailbox
How has economic change increased inequality in Birmingham? (+ examples)
movement from secondary industry to tertiary industry meant many working class residents lost their jobs - increasing inequality leading to crime but good quality suburbs - e.g. 40% live among England's most deprived however Sutton Four Oaks in top 5% of least deprived output areas in the UK
How much of Birmingham lives in England's most deprived areas?
40% among England's most deprived areas
Which area is in the top 5% of least deprived output areas in the UK?
Sutton Four Oaks
What are the impacts of deindustrialisation on Birmingham? (5)
1. unemployment (e.g. 5,900 jobs lost at Longbridge and 65,000 in supply chain)
2. lower family income
3. de-population (as people move away)
4. rise in crime and anti-social behaviour
5. land contaminated from previous industrial use and brownfield sites - expensive to redevelop but valuable
How many jobs were lost at Longbridge due to deindustrialisation?
5,900 jobs lost at Longbridge
and 65,000 in supply chain
Why has decentralisation of retailing occurred? (5)
1. increased car ownership (e.g. free parking in out-of-town locations)
2. cheaper land for larger retail establishments
3. suburbanisation - market is out of city
4. better shopping experience (e.g. climate control)
5. internet shopping means access to more goods
What is decentralisation of retailing?
the movement of retail centres from the CBD to the city's outskirts e.g. Merry Hill (1985) - occurred first in 1970s
What are the population characteristics of Birmingham? (3 + facts imp)
1. 2014 population hit 1.1 million - 4.4% increase in 10 years
2. youthful population - 22.9% children in 2014
3. low pensionable age population - 13.1%
What are the main reasons for popular`lion growth in Birmingham? (3)
1. high birth rate
2. rise in international migration
3. declining death rate
What has been done to make urban living more sustainable in Birmingham? (3)
1. improved recycling system - 30.1% recycling rate
2. £59 million project to improve energy efficiency of homes (e.g. insulation improvement with new windows and efficient heating systems)
3. transport sustainability - gas powered buses in 2010 cut carbon emissions by 12%
What is the recycling rate of Birmingham?
How much does the energy efficiency project in Birmingham cost?
£59 million to improve energy efficiency of homes
Give an example of transport sustainability in Birmingham?
gas powered buses introduced in 2010 with 12% carbon emission cut
What are the impacts of migration in Birmingham? (4)
1. change in age structure
2. change in ethnicity
3. change in housing
4. change in services
What are the impacts of migration on Birmingham's age structure?
percentage of people aged 20-35 is higher than UK average - 66% under 45
What are the impacts of migration on Birmingham's ethnicity?
42% from ethnic groups other than white british
segregation becomes a challenge as in 1970s migrants settled in areas e.g. Sparkbrook and developed their own community
What are the impacts of migration on Birmingham's housing and services?
Housing demand risen by 5,000 in 2015
Pressure on services with language barrier
What is deindustrialisation?
A decrease in the size of the manufacturing sector/secondary industry
What is counter urbanisation?
The movement of people from urban areas to rural areas beyond the green belt
Why does counter urbanisation occur?
people want to move out of the cities in favour of rural living - attracted by cheaper land, larger houses and green space
What are the impacts of suburbanisation/counter urbanisation on the urban rural fringe of Birmingham? (5)
1. local tax base increases - more money in local economy and has trickle down effect
3. dormitory villages
4. house price increases due to demand
5. rural idyll threatened by development
Why does suburbanisation occur? (5)
1. increased car ownership
2. more space
3. good public transport
4. people becoming affluent
5. people don't want to live near areas of deindustrialisation
What are the impacts of suburbanisation/counter urbanisation on the inner city of Birmingham? (5)
1. high rise flats can be replaced with lower density housing
2. derelict land can be cleared (room for new developments)
3. skilled workers move away leaving little money in region - cycle of decline
4. increased gap between rich and poor
5. vacant buildings - rise in crime
When has suburbanisation occurred?
began in the 1920-30s - population increase meant cities had to expand - occurs along main road routes (good connections to the city)
What is suburbanisation?
the outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages into a larger agglomeration
What is the structure and function of the urban rural fringe of Birmingham?
1. fewer, larger, more recently build detached houses
2. cheaper land - development is on greenbelt
3. out of town retail centres and industrial units also sited here
What is the structure and function of the suburbs of Birmingham?
1. lower building density
2. characterised by semi-detached and detached housing
3. usually built in the 1930-60s
4. usually occupied by families and elderly who can afford larger houses
What is the structure and function of the inner city of Birmingham?
1. characterised by terraced housing originally for factory workers
2. areas redeveloped in 1970s to high rise flats
3. occupied by young professionals who cannot afford the suburbs but have good proximity to the centre - gentrify the area
What is the structure and function of the CBD of Birmingham?
1. main hub of economic activity
2. characterised by offices, shops, hotels etc
3. new buildings introduced recently e.g. Bullring Shopping Centre
Give an example of a urban rural fringe of Birmingham.
Give an example of a suburb of Birmingham.
Give an example of an inner city of Birmingham.
Give an example of a CBD of Birmingham.
Birmingham Grand Central
How is Birmingham culturally important? (2 + facts)
1. multicultural - 22% born outside of UK
2. 2011 census - 13.5% Pakistani 6% Indian
How is Birmingham environmentally important? (2 + facts)
1. leading city for parks - 571 covering 3,500 hectares
2. ranked 15th for sustainable UK cities
What is the connectivity of Birmingham? (3)
1. Birmingham International Airport
2. Birmingham New Street railway station
3 access to M5, M6 and M42 providing links to West Midlands
What is the situation of Birmingham? (2)
1. located centrally in England
2. good road links from North to South England
What is the site of Birmingham? (3)
1. located on Birmingham Plateau
2. in the midlands region
3. began as small village built on a dry point site and south facing sandstone ridge
What is the site and situation of Mumbai? (3)
1. began as a small fishing village
2. located on the peninsular of Maharashtra
3. on west coast of India - bordering the Arabian Sea
What is the connectivity of Mumbai? (2)
1. well connected by railway
2. two airports
What is the regional importance of Mumbai?
population of 21 million in 2016
What is the national importance of Mumbai?
reserve bank of India, national stock exchange located there
What is the global importance of Mumbai?
contributes 40% of India's foreign trade and 10% of all factory employment in India
Name the urban rural fringe of Mumbai.
Name a suburb of Mumbai.
Name an inner city of Mumbai.
Name the CBD of Mumbai?
What is the structure and function of the CBD in Mumbai?
1. main hub of economic activity
2. characterised by office blocks (e.g. National stock exchange)
3. recently attracting high-value retailers
What is the structure and function of the inner city in Mumbai?
1. characterised by illegal slum
2. slums began to develop 60 years ago
3. cottage industries and informal economy is large part of the community
What is the structure and function of the suburbs in Mumbai?
1. characterised by middle class housing
2. develop along key infrastructure routes
What is the structure and function of the urban rural fringe in Mumbai?
1. characterised by clean living away from city
2. new, planned towns built e.g. Navi with population of 1 million
Why has rural to urban migration occurred in Mumbai? (push from Bihar)
1. Green Revolution and mechanisation
2. low health/education standards - only 35% of Bihar go to school
3. tradition of land to be split equally led to plots of land too small to support families
What percentage of Bihar goes to school?
What percentage of Bihar lives under the poverty line?
What percentage of houses in Bihar have electricity?
Why has rural to urban migration occurred in Mumbai? (pull to Mumbai)
1. better jobs - 30,000 rupees average income in Mumbai per year
2. healthcare/education better - 3 universities in Mumbai
3. investment by Mumbai Metropolitan Authority - better infrastructure e.g. electricity
What are the reasons for population growth in Mumbai? (3)
1. natural increase
2. rural to urban migration
3. economic investment and growth (job opportunities through investment in construction of factories/offices)
What are the impacts of national/international migration on Mumbai? (2)
- increased inequality - home to Antilla (most expensive house) and 28/100 Indian billionaires and 1 million in Dharavi
- change in services - 3 M&S buildings to cater for british residents
How many M&S buildings are there in Mumbai?
How many Indian billionaires live in Mumbai?
Which expensive house is Mumbai home to?
What are the negative effects of rapid urbanisation in Mumbai? (4)
1. inadequate services e.g. waste collection (1 million rubbish bags daily) sanitation (500 per toilet, 4,000 cases of diphtheria, diarrhoea and typhoid daily)
2. underemployment - informal economy annual turnover of $1 billion
3. pollution - toxic smoke spread by cottage industries e.g. Mahim Creek
4. Housing shortage - 1 million per square mile in squatter settlements
Give an example of a polluted area in Mumbai?
What is the annual turnover for cottage industries?
What are the advantages of top down development? (vice versa for bottom up) (3)
1. large scale investment
2. political support
3. many benefit - multiplier effect (small input large output)
What are the disadvantages of top down development? (vice versa for bottom up) (2)
1. government removed from locals needs
2. heavily focused on economic needs - may exacerbate inequalities
What bottom up approaches are being used in Mumbai? (2 + facts imp)
1. Site and Service Schemes - locals given materials to adjust housing (worked in Rio)
2. SPARC (society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres) provide permanent housing for slum dwellers and community toilets (currently 500 per toilet)
What does SPARC stand for>
Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres
What top down approaches are being used in Mumbai?
7 year plan - $2 billion investment into 14 storey high-rise apartments - improves services bu t destroys sense of community and $1 billion worth of informal economy destroyed