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Flashcards in Changing Cities Deck (120):
1

What is urbanisation?

Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas

2

What is the distribution of the urban population globally?

50% of people live in urban areas
47 megacities (10 million +)
emerging countries have been recently urbanising rapidly

3

How many people live in urban areas globally?

50%

4

How many megacities are there?

47

5

What are the trends in urbanisation for developed countries and why has this happened? (3 + facts for each)

1. urbanised in the 1800s due to industrialisation - mechanisation in farming and increase of factory jobs (UK cities grew by 10% a year 1830-90)
2. unpredictable crop nature led to failure and famine (potato famine in Ireland killed 1 million in 1840-50)
3. transportation improved (e.g. 1940s railway)

6

How much did UK cities grow in the 19th century?

10% per year between 1830-90

7

When was the potato famine in Ireland and why did it occur?

1840-50 - killed 1 million due to unpredictable crop nature

8

When did UK railways improve?

Railways 1940s

9

What are the push factors for rural to urban migration in a developing country? (3)

Push Factors from BIHAR:
1. Green Revolution and mechanisation - loss of farming jobs
2. Indian tradition to split land equally between sons leads to plots of land too small to support a family
3. education/healthcare is poor as people don't want to work in the impoverished countryside

10

What are the pull factors for rural to urban migration in a developing country? (3 + facts)

1. better jobs - 30,000 rupees average income in Mumbai per year
2. healthcare/education better - 3 universities in Mumbai
3. investment into Mumbai from Indian government and international agencies e.g. UN improving water supplies - also means more employment

11

How many universities are there in Mumbai?

3

12

How much is average income in Mumbai?

30,000 rupees per year

13

Give an example of an international agency investing in Mumbai.

the UN in public works - improving water supplies means employment and better infrastructure as a result

14

How has urbanisation occurred naturally?

High birth rate in developing countries - e.g. by lack of contraception, education, need children for work or to compensate for high infant mortality

15

What are the generic effects of urbanisation in developing (2) and developed (2) countries? (facts for each)

1. Squatter settlements develop e.g. Dharavi e.g. 1 million per square mile
2. air/noise/water pollution e.g. 4,000 cases of diarrhoea, diphtheria and typhoid daily in Dharavi
3. investment increases e.g. London contributes 21.9% to UK economy
4. Gap between rich and poor increases

16

How many people live in Dharavi?

1 million per square mile

17

How many cases of disease are there per day in Dharavi?

4,000 cases of diarrhoea, diphtheria and typhoid daily

18

How much does London contribute to the UK economy?

21.9%

19

What are the factors that cause urbanisation to vary? (4)

1. historical factors
2. recent economic factors
3. political factors
4. physical factors

20

How do physical factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?

flat land - more accessible - infrastructure more developed - increased connectivity - businesses locate there

21

How do political factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?

- London is centre of UK governance - encourages growth

22

What is the distribution of urban areas in the UK?

1. distribution is uneven
2. population density generally lower in the North than the South
3. London has highest population density of 5000 people /km²
4. Liverpool and Portsmouth 3000+ people /km²
5. overall population density of 266 /km²

23

What is the population density of London?

5000 people /km²

24

Which cities have a population of 3000+ people /km²

Liverpool and Portsmouth

25

Why does the rate of urbanisation differ between regions in the UK? (3)

1. relief of land in North makes if difficult to build - so fewer major cities
2. cooler climate in north makes living in the area difficult due to extreme weather
3. location of ports provide opportunities with industry/employment e.g. Liverpool has population density of over 3,000 people /km²

26

What is the overall population density of the UK?

266 people /km²

27

How do recent economic factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?

change to tertiary and quaternary sector (e.g. science development) means people locate to cities - good transportation and communication links required (money needed)

28

How do historical factors cause levels of urbanisation to vary?

industrial revolution - rapid growth of factory towns - industrial cities grew rapidly - UK cities grew by 10% a year between 1830-90

29

What has been done to improve quality of life in Birmingham?

1. worked with "Healthy Villages" to improve health and wellbeing for residents by improving access services
2. 2012 community centre set up in Sparkbrook - 3 GP practices, a library and offices for local set up
3. Youth Promise introduced to provide employment for 14-25 year olds
4. Birmingham Education Partnership - recruit and retrain teachers in the area

30

What does Healthy Villages do?

improves health and wellbeing of residents in Birmingham by improving access to services

31

What was set up in 2012?

a community centre in Sparkbrook that provided 3 GP practices, a library and offices for local set up

32

What did the Youth Promise promise? (haha get it)

to provide employment for 14-25 year olds

33

What policy aims to retrain and recruit teachers in Birmingham?

Birmingham Education Partnership

34

What is the impact of the changes in retailing on the city centre? (3)

1. growth of out-of-town shopping centres which offered cheaper prices took customers out of the centre
2. shops in CBD lost customers and made less money - causing some shops to close down (12% decline in CBD trade between 1990-95)
3. CBD redevelopment and pedestrianisation to appeal to shoppers e.g. Bull Ring 2003 saw growth in trade

35

How much did Birmingham's CBD decline as out-of-town locations began to emerge?

12% decline in CBD trade between 1990-95

36

Give an example of a redevelopment to encourage shoppers in the CBD.

the Bull Ring 2003 and most recently Birmingham Grand Central

37

What are the causes of deindustrialisation? (4)

1. de-centralisation
2. transport
3. technological advancements
4. globalisation

38

How did de-centralisation cause deindustrialisation?

suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation shifted focus away from city centre and caused declines in the inner city and industry

39

How did transport cause deindustrialisation?

development of aerospace technology meant more competition from abroad causing outsourcing of manufacturing e.g. MG Rover in Longbridge outsourced production to Japan

40

How did technological advancements cause deindustrialisation?

communication increase means businesses can become footloose and operate abroad e.g. 88% of households own a computer in the UK

41

How did globalisation cause deindustrialisation?

more competition from abroad due to technological advancements

42

What are the causes of international migration to Birmingham? (2 + facts)

1. employee shortages in the past meant people moved for employment - 22% of Birmingham born outside of UK
2. fleeing conflict - Birmingham pledged to take 500 Syrian refugees

43

How many Syrian refugees is Birmingham pledged to take over the next 5 years?

500 refugees

44

What percentage of Birmingham's population is born outside of the UK?

22%

45

What are the causes of national migration to Birmingham?

increased investment in CBD creates more jobs - attractive for students 2nd largest Student population
- population over 1.1 million

46

What is the population of Birmingham?

1.1 million

47

What are the causes of national migration out of Birmingham?

elderly move out to retirement destinations e.g. Bournemouth

48

What is reurbanisation?

the movement of people back to the centre of urban areas

49

What are the features of reurbanisation? (2)

1. occur in areas close to work/amenities
2. usually follows regeneration - often of old industrial buildings

50

Give an example of reurbanisation.

City Flats in Mailbox

51

How has economic change increased inequality in Birmingham? (+ examples)

movement from secondary industry to tertiary industry meant many working class residents lost their jobs - increasing inequality leading to crime but good quality suburbs - e.g. 40% live among England's most deprived however Sutton Four Oaks in top 5% of least deprived output areas in the UK

52

How much of Birmingham lives in England's most deprived areas?

40% among England's most deprived areas

53

Which area is in the top 5% of least deprived output areas in the UK?

Sutton Four Oaks

54

What are the impacts of deindustrialisation on Birmingham? (5)

1. unemployment (e.g. 5,900 jobs lost at Longbridge and 65,000 in supply chain)
2. lower family income
3. de-population (as people move away)
4. rise in crime and anti-social behaviour
5. land contaminated from previous industrial use and brownfield sites - expensive to redevelop but valuable

55

How many jobs were lost at Longbridge due to deindustrialisation?

5,900 jobs lost at Longbridge
and 65,000 in supply chain

56

Why has decentralisation of retailing occurred? (5)

1. increased car ownership (e.g. free parking in out-of-town locations)
2. cheaper land for larger retail establishments
3. suburbanisation - market is out of city
4. better shopping experience (e.g. climate control)
5. internet shopping means access to more goods

57

What is decentralisation of retailing?

the movement of retail centres from the CBD to the city's outskirts e.g. Merry Hill (1985) - occurred first in 1970s

58

What are the population characteristics of Birmingham? (3 + facts imp)

1. 2014 population hit 1.1 million - 4.4% increase in 10 years
2. youthful population - 22.9% children in 2014
3. low pensionable age population - 13.1%

59

What are the main reasons for popular`lion growth in Birmingham? (3)

1. high birth rate
2. rise in international migration
3. declining death rate

60

What has been done to make urban living more sustainable in Birmingham? (3)

1. improved recycling system - 30.1% recycling rate
2. £59 million project to improve energy efficiency of homes (e.g. insulation improvement with new windows and efficient heating systems)
3. transport sustainability - gas powered buses in 2010 cut carbon emissions by 12%

61

What is the recycling rate of Birmingham?

30.1%

62

How much does the energy efficiency project in Birmingham cost?

£59 million to improve energy efficiency of homes

63

Give an example of transport sustainability in Birmingham?

gas powered buses introduced in 2010 with 12% carbon emission cut

64

What are the impacts of migration in Birmingham? (4)

1. change in age structure
2. change in ethnicity
3. change in housing
4. change in services

65

What are the impacts of migration on Birmingham's age structure?

percentage of people aged 20-35 is higher than UK average - 66% under 45

66

What are the impacts of migration on Birmingham's ethnicity?

42% from ethnic groups other than white british
segregation becomes a challenge as in 1970s migrants settled in areas e.g. Sparkbrook and developed their own community

67

What are the impacts of migration on Birmingham's housing and services?

Housing demand risen by 5,000 in 2015
Pressure on services with language barrier

68

What is deindustrialisation?

A decrease in the size of the manufacturing sector/secondary industry

69

What is counter urbanisation?

The movement of people from urban areas to rural areas beyond the green belt

70

Why does counter urbanisation occur?

people want to move out of the cities in favour of rural living - attracted by cheaper land, larger houses and green space

71

What are the impacts of suburbanisation/counter urbanisation on the urban rural fringe of Birmingham? (5)

1. local tax base increases - more money in local economy and has trickle down effect
2. congestion/pollution
3. dormitory villages
4. house price increases due to demand
5. rural idyll threatened by development

72

Why does suburbanisation occur? (5)

1. increased car ownership
2. more space
3. good public transport
4. people becoming affluent
5. people don't want to live near areas of deindustrialisation

73

What are the impacts of suburbanisation/counter urbanisation on the inner city of Birmingham? (5)

1. high rise flats can be replaced with lower density housing
2. derelict land can be cleared (room for new developments)
3. skilled workers move away leaving little money in region - cycle of decline
4. increased gap between rich and poor
5. vacant buildings - rise in crime

74

When has suburbanisation occurred?

began in the 1920-30s - population increase meant cities had to expand - occurs along main road routes (good connections to the city)

75

What is suburbanisation?

the outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages into a larger agglomeration

76

What is the structure and function of the urban rural fringe of Birmingham?

1. fewer, larger, more recently build detached houses
2. cheaper land - development is on greenbelt
3. out of town retail centres and industrial units also sited here

77

What is the structure and function of the suburbs of Birmingham?

1. lower building density
2. characterised by semi-detached and detached housing
3. usually built in the 1930-60s
4. usually occupied by families and elderly who can afford larger houses

78

What is the structure and function of the inner city of Birmingham?

1. characterised by terraced housing originally for factory workers
2. areas redeveloped in 1970s to high rise flats
3. occupied by young professionals who cannot afford the suburbs but have good proximity to the centre - gentrify the area

79

What is the structure and function of the CBD of Birmingham?

1. main hub of economic activity
2. characterised by offices, shops, hotels etc
3. new buildings introduced recently e.g. Bullring Shopping Centre

80

Give an example of a urban rural fringe of Birmingham.

Reddich

81

Give an example of a suburb of Birmingham.

Edgbaston

82

Give an example of an inner city of Birmingham.

Sparkbrook

83

Give an example of a CBD of Birmingham.

Birmingham Grand Central

84

How is Birmingham culturally important? (2 + facts)

1. multicultural - 22% born outside of UK
2. 2011 census - 13.5% Pakistani 6% Indian

85

How is Birmingham environmentally important? (2 + facts)

1. leading city for parks - 571 covering 3,500 hectares
2. ranked 15th for sustainable UK cities

86

What is the connectivity of Birmingham? (3)

1. Birmingham International Airport
2. Birmingham New Street railway station
3 access to M5, M6 and M42 providing links to West Midlands

87

What is the situation of Birmingham? (2)

1. located centrally in England
2. good road links from North to South England

88

What is the site of Birmingham? (3)

1. located on Birmingham Plateau
2. in the midlands region
3. began as small village built on a dry point site and south facing sandstone ridge

89

What is the site and situation of Mumbai? (3)

1. began as a small fishing village
2. located on the peninsular of Maharashtra
3. on west coast of India - bordering the Arabian Sea

90

What is the connectivity of Mumbai? (2)

1. well connected by railway
2. two airports

91

What is the regional importance of Mumbai?

population of 21 million in 2016

92

What is the national importance of Mumbai?

reserve bank of India, national stock exchange located there

93

What is the global importance of Mumbai?

contributes 40% of India's foreign trade and 10% of all factory employment in India

94

Name the urban rural fringe of Mumbai.

Navi

95

Name a suburb of Mumbai.

Salsette

96

Name an inner city of Mumbai.

Dharavi

97

Name the CBD of Mumbai?

Nariman Point

98

What is the structure and function of the CBD in Mumbai?

1. main hub of economic activity
2. characterised by office blocks (e.g. National stock exchange)
3. recently attracting high-value retailers

99

What is the structure and function of the inner city in Mumbai?

1. characterised by illegal slum
2. slums began to develop 60 years ago
3. cottage industries and informal economy is large part of the community

100

What is the structure and function of the suburbs in Mumbai?

1. characterised by middle class housing
2. develop along key infrastructure routes

101

What is the structure and function of the urban rural fringe in Mumbai?

1. characterised by clean living away from city
2. new, planned towns built e.g. Navi with population of 1 million

102

Why has rural to urban migration occurred in Mumbai? (push from Bihar)

1. Green Revolution and mechanisation
2. low health/education standards - only 35% of Bihar go to school
3. tradition of land to be split equally led to plots of land too small to support families

103

What percentage of Bihar goes to school?

35%

104

What percentage of Bihar lives under the poverty line?

55%

105

What percentage of houses in Bihar have electricity?

58%

106

Why has rural to urban migration occurred in Mumbai? (pull to Mumbai)

1. better jobs - 30,000 rupees average income in Mumbai per year
2. healthcare/education better - 3 universities in Mumbai
3. investment by Mumbai Metropolitan Authority - better infrastructure e.g. electricity

107

What are the reasons for population growth in Mumbai? (3)

1. natural increase
2. rural to urban migration
3. economic investment and growth (job opportunities through investment in construction of factories/offices)

108

What are the impacts of national/international migration on Mumbai? (2)

- increased inequality - home to Antilla (most expensive house) and 28/100 Indian billionaires and 1 million in Dharavi
- change in services - 3 M&S buildings to cater for british residents

109

How many M&S buildings are there in Mumbai?

3

110

How many Indian billionaires live in Mumbai?

28/100

111

Which expensive house is Mumbai home to?

Antilla

112

What are the negative effects of rapid urbanisation in Mumbai? (4)

1. inadequate services e.g. waste collection (1 million rubbish bags daily) sanitation (500 per toilet, 4,000 cases of diphtheria, diarrhoea and typhoid daily)
2. underemployment - informal economy annual turnover of $1 billion
3. pollution - toxic smoke spread by cottage industries e.g. Mahim Creek
4. Housing shortage - 1 million per square mile in squatter settlements

113

Give an example of a polluted area in Mumbai?

Mahim Creek

114

What is the annual turnover for cottage industries?

$1 billion

115

What are the advantages of top down development? (vice versa for bottom up) (3)

1. large scale investment
2. political support
3. many benefit - multiplier effect (small input large output)

116

What are the disadvantages of top down development? (vice versa for bottom up) (2)

1. government removed from locals needs
2. heavily focused on economic needs - may exacerbate inequalities

117

What bottom up approaches are being used in Mumbai? (2 + facts imp)

1. Site and Service Schemes - locals given materials to adjust housing (worked in Rio)
2. SPARC (society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres) provide permanent housing for slum dwellers and community toilets (currently 500 per toilet)

118

What does SPARC stand for>

Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres

119

What top down approaches are being used in Mumbai?

7 year plan - $2 billion investment into 14 storey high-rise apartments - improves services bu t destroys sense of community and $1 billion worth of informal economy destroyed

120

How much does the 7 year plan cost?

$2 billion - 14 storey apartments