Flashcards in Development Deck (17):
Development is used to describe how advanced a country is compared to another - it is about the standard of living but also quality of life
List 5 ways in which development can be measured
1. Gross Domestic Product
2. Literacy Rate
3. Life Expectancy
4. Political Corruption Index
5. Human Development Index
What is GDP?
total wealth/income earned by a country in a year - often divided by number of people to give GDP per capita
What is Literacy Rate?
percentage of the population who can read and write
What is Life Expectancy?
the average age a person is expected to live e.g. UK 81 Japan 82
What is the life expectancy of Japan?
82 (compared to 81 in UK)
What is the Political Corruption Index?
political corruption index grades countries from "highly corrupt" to "vey clean" - when quality of government is poor corruption is high e.g. Denmark least corrupt, North Korea most corrupt
What is the Human Development Index?
1. life expectancy
3. average years in education
Why do levels of development vary between countries? (4)
1. physical factors
2. historical factors
3. economic factors
4. social factors
How do physical factors cause levels of development to vary?
size of country, climate, natural hazards - affect level of development
e.g. Ethiopia landlocked meaning hard to trade and challenging climate means difficult to make money off the land
How do historical factors cause levels of development to vary?
trading links and colonial ruling affect level of development
e.g. Ethiopia occupied by Italy 1936-42 - during this time money leaked back to Italy leaving Ethiopia without money in the area
How do economic factors cause levels of development to vary?
employment rates, salary, debt etc
e.g. Ethiopia world debt means money made goes to repayments
How do social factors cause levels of development to vary?
levels of education/disease
e.g. Ethiopia high incidence of HIV means population is unable to work
How is inequality measured?
using the gini coefficient - measures the gap between rich and poor
What are some statistics gathered from the gini coefficient?
Slovenia - 25.6 - lowest inequality
South Africa - 63.4 - highest inequality
What factors contribute to the human development of a country? (6)
1. economic factors
2. social factors
3. technological factors
4. cultural factors
5. food security
6. water security