Flashcards in Development Deck (76):
Development is used to describe how advanced a country is compared to another - it is about the standard of living but also quality of life
List 5 ways in which development can be measured
1. Gross Domestic Product (economic)
2. Literacy Rate (social)
3. Life Expectancy (social)
4. Political Corruption Index (political)
5. Human Development Index (economic/social)
What is GDP?
total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year - often divided by number of people to give GDP per capita
What is Literacy Rate?
percentage of the population who can read and write
What is Life Expectancy?
the average age a person is expected to live e.g. UK 81 Japan 82
What is the life expectancy of Japan?
82 (compared to 81 in UK)
What is the Political Corruption Index?
political corruption index grades countries from "highly corrupt" to "vey clean" - when quality of government is poor corruption is high e.g. Denmark least corrupt, North Korea most corrupt
What is the Human Development Index?
1. life expectancy
3. average years in education
Why do levels of development vary between countries? (4)
1. physical factors
2. historical factors
3. economic factors
4. social factors
How do physical factors cause levels of development to vary between countries?
size of country, climate, natural hazards - affect level of development
e.g. Ethiopia landlocked meaning hard to trade and challenging climate means difficult to make money off the land
How do historical factors cause levels of development to vary between countries?
trading links and colonial ruling affect level of development
e.g. Ethiopia occupied by Italy 1936-42 - during this time money leaked back to Italy leaving Ethiopia without money in the area
How do economic factors cause levels of development to vary between countries?
employment rates, salary, debt etc
e.g. Ethiopia world debt means money made goes to repayments
How do social factors cause levels of development to vary between countries?
levels of education/disease
e.g. Ethiopia high incidence of HIV means population is unable to work
How is inequality measured?
using the gini coefficient - measures the gap between rich and poor
What are some statistics gathered from the gini coefficient?
Slovenia - 25.6 - lowest inequality
South Africa - 63.4 - highest inequality
What factors contribute to the human development of a country? (6)
1. economic factors (personal wealth/income, growth of economy, type of industry etc)
2. social factors (access to healthcare, education,, housing and recreation)
3. technological factors (electricity, internet access, farm/industry machinery)
4. cultural factors (democracy, work/life balance, traditional/imported culture balance)
5. food security (sufficient, safe nutritious food, to maintain an active life - GDP growth due to agriculture is 4 times more effective in reducing poverty than other growth)
6. water security (capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable water use e.g. 840,000 people die each year from water related disease)
Why do levels of development vary within a country (3)
1. physical factors (infrastructure and location)
2. historical factors (deindustrialisation)
3. economic factors (employment)
How do physical factors (infrastructure and location) cause development to vary within a country?
accessibility - greater connectivity means more investment opportunities e.g. Mumbai has 3 airports - more potential - near coastline allows trade
How do historical factors (deindustrialisation) cause development to vary within a country?
links with a particular industry - decline of industry following globalisation e.g. North East mining and manufacturing therefore lower house property half average (at £140,000)
How do economic factors (employment) cause development to vary within a country?
improved education means more skilled workers - meaning high earning potential - brain drain away from areas of poor education e.g. Bihar (35% attend primary) - north/south east £17000 salary compared to £21000
What is development gap between countries like?
development gap has increased e.g. highest GDP in oil rich states in middle east (e.g. Qatar) and western countries
compared to poorest countries e.g. Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo
What are the impacts of uneven development (on quality of life)? (6)
6. food and water security
How does uneven development have an impact on employment?
in developing countries employment opportunities are in the informal sector - work is limited with people working in lower paid labour intensive jobs e.g. Dharavi
How does uneven development have an impact on health?
healthcare is limited in the developing world with fewer doctors and poor facilities e.g. Ethiopia life expectancy is 64 compared to 81 in the UK
How does uneven development have an impact on access to housing?
many don't have access to housing e.g. 30% live in slums - 6 million die before 5th birthday each year
How does uneven development have an impact on education?
literacy rates are lower in developing world - 70 million not in primary education in 2010 - affecting future employment prospects
How does uneven development have an impact on technology?
less investment in technology with few people with skills to use it - appropriate technology (suitable to social/economic conditions of the area) is allowing progress in developing countries
How does uneven development have an impact on food and water security?
developing countries lack of access to food and potable water results in malnourishment and dehydration - affecting health and ability to make money - 1/9 people don't have enough to eat, 840,000 die each year from water diseases
What international strategies are attempting to reduce uneven development between countries?
- international aid
- inter-government agreements
How does international aid reduce uneven development between countries?
international aid is when one country voluntarily transfers resources to another, providing vital income for developing countries and so reducing uneven development by e.g. paying for imports, supporting accumulation of enough capital to invest in industry, and addressing shortages of skills needed for development
What are the types of international aid? (+examples)
1. short term emergency aid - after specific disasters e.g. Haiti earthquake 2010
2.bilateral aid - when one country directly gives aid to another - can be conditional
3. multilateral aid - aid given through international organisations e.g. the World Bank - HIPC initiative (highly indebted poor countries) assistance to 36 countries with debt reduction
What is the HIPC Initiative?
(highly indebted poor countries initiative) assistance to 36 countries with debt reduction by the World Bank and IMF
How do inter-governmental agreements reduce uneven development between countries?
agreements made between countries to cooperate in some way e.g.
- Trade Agreements (e.g. between EU and China)
- Fair Trade Producers (developing countries work together to directly deal with developed countries to get fair trade - however only makes up less than 1% of total world trade)
- Foreign Direct Interest (when a company invests in a country and has some control of what the company does)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of foreign direct investment?
- brings investment
- brings in brands (widening consumer market)
- foreign companies install infrastructure and push up wages
- big brands outsell local products
- unreliable as investors can pull out
- lack of regulations can have environmental consequences and other impacts
What is the difference between bottom up and top down development?
top down - large scale development usually organised by the government or large companies
bottom up - grassroots development where local people are heavily involved in decisions being made
What are the advantages of top down development?
- large scale so large amounts of people affected (multiplier effect - small input large output)
- political support
What are the disadvantages of top down development?
- government is detached from local people needs - focused heavily on economic needs - could exacerbate inequalities - investment from TNCs overpower locals
What is an example of top down development?
Sardar Sarovar Dam - might drown out 244 villages - forcing 250,000 out of their homes - producing 1450mW per day
What are the advantages of bottom up development?
assisted through actions of NGOs - cheap - uses appropriate technology therefore sustainable
What are the disadvantages of bottom up development?
small people involved and lacks funding
What is an example of bottom up development?
Application for Science and Technology in Rural Areas reducing deforestation in rural India - allowing women to receive education as opposed to collecting firewood
What is my case study of development?
Where is India?
Borders the Indian Ocean
Shares border with 6 countries
What is the political context of India?
(regional): largest country in the Indian subcontinent, population unevenly divided most in 6 states
(global): 2nd most populated country in the world 1.3 bn, 7th largest country
What is the social context of India?
(regional): population divided over 29 states, social ranks known as castes are assigned at birth
(global): 20 million Indian diasporas located in over 100 countries, money made elsewhere and sent home
What is the cultural context of India?
(regional): 80% Hindu, others include Sikh, Islam and Buddhism
(global): 3rd largest Islamic population in the world, bollywood makes 1600 films a year
What is the environmental context of India?
(regional): has two monsoon seasons a year, NE in cooler months and SW in warmer months, large population causes environmental degradation
What are the characteristics of uneven development in India?
- occurs around urban cores as opposed to rural peripheries as investment in infrastructure attracts skilled workers and foreign direct investment - and accessibility/trading links
- e.g. Bihar 86% live in rural areas - poorest state - 6,000 rupees per year - 55% live below poverty line - only 35% attend primary education
- Maharashtra - India's richest state, Mumbai with 3 units, 30,000 rupees
How has the primary industry in India changed?
contribution of agriculture from 58% to 26% to India's GDP - mechanisation increased
How has the secondary industry in India changed?
secondary contribution 15% - 22% - coca cola has 19 manufacturing companies
How has the tertiary industry in India changed?
tertiary increase 27% - 52%
How has the quaternary industry in India changed?
fastest growing telecom market in the world
What positive impacts have the changes in primary industry had on India?
improved ability to make money following urbanisation
What negative impacts have the changes in primary industry had on India?
break down of traditional family units - challenges of rural to urban migration e.g. squatter settlements
What positive impacts have the changes in secondary industry had on India?
more technologically advanced jobs available - coco cola employs 25,000 people
causes development of infrastructure - 500 rainwater harvesting structures have been installed
What negative impacts have the changes in secondary industry had on India?
it widens the development gap
increases impact on the environment - 510,000 litres drawn death day - lack of irrigation meant harvest dropped 40%
increased population density in cities - squatter settlements
What positive impacts have the changes in tertiary industry had on India?
more employment opportunities - 440 admin jobs of BT outsourced from UK to India
growth of economy with rising GDP and GNI
What positive impacts have the changes in quaternary industry had on India?
over 1 million ICT jobs created
increased investment from TNCs
What are the characteristics of international trade in India?
1990s - rapid rise in imports and exports
2014 - 19th in the world for exporting merchandise, 8th for exporting commercial services
key exports - oil products, gems and jewellery
key imports - crude oil, gold, silver and electrical goods
How is India involved in public investment?
- investment by the state in education, health, transport, housing etc
- public sector in India is bigger than in the UK and USA
How is India involved in private investment?
inward investment by TNCs and businesses - much of this is Foreign Direct Investment which has increased $17 - $34 billion (2005-2014)
How is India involved in international aid?
largest recipient of foreign aid - however this has recently declined and it now gives aid to others e.g. Nepal and the Maldives - 2014/5 anticipated expenditure of 1.3 billion - double it had received
How has India's population structure changed over the past 30 years?
1. fall in death rate - life expectancy 54-68 years (improved healthcare and vaccine programmes)
2. birth rate is high (lack of contraception, children to work and compensation for child mortality however this is beginning to decrease)
- these cause natural increase in population increased 68% since 1990
THEREFORE population pyramid has increase in elderly dependants, increase economically active, decline in young dependants (babies)
What are the changing social factors that are occurring in India?
1. increasing inequality
2. growing middle class
3. improving education
How is inequality changing in India? (social changes)
increasing gap between rich and poor
continuity in low status of women - 65% literacy rate compared to 82% in men
old people are not benefitting
How is the middle class changing in India? (social changes)
urbanisation (32%) + education (74%) = middle class
How is education changing in India? (social changes)
government investment in schools means literacy rate has risen (at 74%)
What are the factors that are affected by India's relations with other countries? (5)
1. geopolitics (how its geography affects international relations)
2. foreign policy (building links with france, canada and germany e.g. deal with canada to get 2.3 million kilos of uranium)
3. defence (chatting to US about defence agreement for shared logistics in warships, planes and personnel which might help with humanitarian assistance or disaster relief)
4. military (pact with Russia to supply Indian army with missiles and develop fighter jets / nuclear power reactors - increases income from exportation)
5. territorial disputes (fought 3 wars with Pakistan over Kashmir region since 1947)
How has technology and connectivity supported development in India for different groups?
massive advances in technology - 61 million broadband connections in 2013
huge divide - half of these broadband connections were only in 5/29 states
What are the positive economic impacts of rapid development?
1. causes rise in consumerism (1st starbucks in 2012)
2. increases tourism - last year rise of 11% since 2015
3. larger workforce
What are the negative economic impacts of rapid development?
1. cost of dealing with environmental and social problems
2. cost of new infrastructure (sardar sarovar dam $8bn)
3. pressure/cost of new services
What are the positive social impacts of rapid development?
1. improved access to healthcare and education (literacy rate 74%)
What are the negative social impacts of rapid development?
1. pollution in cities reduces life expectancy by 3.2yrs
2. lack of housing means slums and squatter settlements (e.g. Dharavi)
3. increases inequality (women 65% literacy rate compared to 82% in men)
What are the positive environmental impacts of rapid development?
1. investment in new technologies - 49% of electricity from renewables in India by 2040
What are the negative environmental impacts of rapid development?
1. logging/land clearance
2. increased CO2 emissions - more chemicals in industry and agriculture since green revolution
3. desertification and deforestation - 13.7 million ha per year