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(13) Geography 2 > Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development Deck (17):
1

Define development

Development is used to describe how advanced a country is compared to another - it is about the standard of living but also quality of life

2

List 5 ways in which development can be measured

1. Gross Domestic Product
2. Literacy Rate
3. Life Expectancy
4. Political Corruption Index
5. Human Development Index

3

What is GDP?

total wealth/income earned by a country in a year - often divided by number of people to give GDP per capita

4

What is Literacy Rate?

percentage of the population who can read and write

5

What is Life Expectancy?

the average age a person is expected to live e.g. UK 81 Japan 82

6

What is the life expectancy of Japan?

82 (compared to 81 in UK)

7

What is the Political Corruption Index?

political corruption index grades countries from "highly corrupt" to "vey clean" - when quality of government is poor corruption is high e.g. Denmark least corrupt, North Korea most corrupt

8

What is the Human Development Index?

combination of
1. life expectancy
2. GDP
3. average years in education

9

Why do levels of development vary between countries? (4)

1. physical factors
2. historical factors
3. economic factors
4. social factors

10

How do physical factors cause levels of development to vary?

size of country, climate, natural hazards - affect level of development
e.g. Ethiopia landlocked meaning hard to trade and challenging climate means difficult to make money off the land

11

How do historical factors cause levels of development to vary?

trading links and colonial ruling affect level of development
e.g. Ethiopia occupied by Italy 1936-42 - during this time money leaked back to Italy leaving Ethiopia without money in the area

12

How do economic factors cause levels of development to vary?

employment rates, salary, debt etc
e.g. Ethiopia world debt means money made goes to repayments

13

How do social factors cause levels of development to vary?

levels of education/disease
e.g. Ethiopia high incidence of HIV means population is unable to work

14

How is inequality measured?

using the gini coefficient - measures the gap between rich and poor

15

What are some statistics gathered from the gini coefficient?

Slovenia - 25.6 - lowest inequality
South Africa - 63.4 - highest inequality

16

What factors contribute to the human development of a country? (6)

1. economic factors
2. social factors
3. technological factors
4. cultural factors
5. food security
6. water security

17

How do economic factors contribute to the human development of a country?

- personal wealth/income
- growth of economy