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Flashcards in Changing That Landscape Of The Uk Deck (18):

What are sedimentary rocks?

Sedimentary rocks are formed in layers called beds. They often contain fossils. Examples include chalk and sandstone


What is chalk?

It a type of sedimentary rock that is made up of calcium carbonate, and is susceptible to chemical weathering


What is sandstone?

It's a type of sedimentary rock that is made up of sand-sized grains cemented together. It can be hard and resistant to weathering but is permeable


What is igneous rock?

Igneous rocks are hard and formed of crystals so are resistant to erosion. They are usually impermeable - water doesn't pass through them. Examples inclue granite and basalt


What is granite?

It's a type of igneous rock that is affected by chemical weathering. Granite landscapes drain badly, so tend to be boggy


What is basalt?

Basalt is a type of igneous rock that is grey made from very small crystals. Lava flows and cools to form basalt


What is metamorphic rock?

It starts off as one rock and changes into another, examples include schist and slate


What is the geology of the Uk?

The uk is split into two halves geologically
The north-western uk is mainly harder igneous and metamorphic rocks, forming upland landscapes
The south-eastern UK is mainly softer sedimentary rocks, forming lowland landscapes


Plate tectonics

Millions of years ago the uk was close to plate boundaries. Plate movements caused mountains (huge folds) and faults in the rocks. 520 million years ago two plates converged to form upland mountain landscapes - northern Scotland, the Lake District and north wales. 50-60 million years ago diverging plate boundaries cause the Atlantic Ocean to open. Rising lava produced the distinctive basalt geology of the Giants causeway


Distinctive landscapes

North-west of the Tees-Exe line the UK's geology is largely igneous: rocks formed from magma and lava, associated with tectonic events. Long-extinct volcanoes form hills and mountains.
Basalt can form a very distinct landscape as the lava cools into polygon shapes: for example, the giants causeway in Northern Ireland and Fingal's cave in Scotland.


Glacial erosion? (Upland)

Stickle tarn, in the north, is where a glacier formed during the ice age and carved out a corrie


Weathering? (Upland)

The crags are exposed rock faces. Weathering leads to rock fragments breaking off and falling to the base of the cliff to form a scree slope


Climate? (Upland)

High precipitation here means there is a lot of surface drainage over the impermeable rocks; there are many streams


Post-glacial river? (Upland)

The valley floor at the bottom is too wide for the stream to have eroded it. The flat bottom and steep sides shows that it is a U-shaped valley formed by a glacier


River erosion? (Lowland)

As the rivers meander, they have eroded a wide valley between low hills. The rivers transport slit eroded from the river channel


River deposition? (Lowland)

Prolonged heavy rain can cause the rivers to flood. Water so reads out all over the valley floor, depositing the slit to form a wide fat floodplain


What is Forestry?

Forestry is managing woodland for timber
Many uk upland landscapes have been planted with trees for forestry. Sometimes they are in straight rows to make them easy to manage
The uk would naturally be covered by deciduous woodland. However, some uk landscapes feature conifer plantations, which are distinctive


What are the 3 main uk rock types?