Chap 1 and 2 (Phys Agents & Inflamm/Tissue Repair) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 1 and 2 (Phys Agents & Inflamm/Tissue Repair) Deck (95)
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1
Q

Fibroblast growth

A

Fibroplasia

2
Q

What are the cardinal signs of Inflammation

A
Heat 
Redness
swelling
Pain
Loss of function
3
Q

Development of new blood supply to area

A

neovascularization

4
Q

The protein of the fibers of skin, tendon, bone, cartilage, and all other connective tissue

A

Collagen

5
Q

Rapid closing of a wound with sutures and little loss of tissue

A

Primary intention (wound contraction)

6
Q

Wound contraction necessary for closing loss of tissue (open wound)

A

Secondary intention (wound contraction)

7
Q

Use of graft or sutures later to close the wound.

A

Delayed primary intention (wound contraction)

8
Q

Physical agents that cause an increase or decrease in tissue temp

A

Thermal agents

9
Q

The application of electrical current through the skin to modulate pain.

A

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

10
Q

Electromagnetic radiation in the IR range that can be absorbed by matter and if of sufficient intensity can cause an increase in temperature

A

Infrared (IR) radiation

11
Q

Alternating immersion in hot and cold water

A

Contrast bath

12
Q

systemically developed statements that attempt to interpret current research to provide evidence-based guidelines to guide practitioners and pt decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances

A

Clinical practice guidelines

13
Q

Pain believed to involve sympathetic nervous system over-activation, previously called reflex sympathetic dystrophy and sympathetically maintained pain. (When it is painful to wear a shirt)

A

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)

14
Q

What is the I.C.I.D.H. model

A

international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps

15
Q

What are some examples of mechanical agents?

A

Water
traction
compression
sound

16
Q

Energy and materials applied to pts to assist in rehabilitation

A

Physical Agents

17
Q

The body’s first response to tissue damage. Characterized by heat, redness, pain, swelling, and often loss of function

A

Inflammation

18
Q

Conditions under which a particular tx should be applied

A

indications

19
Q

The application of a mechanical force to the body in a way that separates or attempts to separate the joint surfaces and elongates the surrounding of tissues

A

Traciton

20
Q

Name the stages of fracture healing

A
impaction
induction
inflammation
soft callus
hard callus
remodeling
21
Q

What is the name for the therapeutic use of cold water?

A

cryotherapy

22
Q

What is the name for the therapeutic application of heat?

A

thermotherapy

23
Q

What is the term for insensibility to pain, as in the effect of pain killers

A

analgesia

24
Q

What is the term for the application of shortwave or microwave electromagnetic energy to produce heat within tissues, particularly deep tissues?

A

Diathermy

25
Q

What is the term for goal-oriented intervention designed to maximize independence in individuals who have compromised function?

A

rehabilitation

26
Q

What modality uses intermittent delivery of ultrasound?

A

Pulsed ultrasound

27
Q

What is the international classification of functioning, disability and health? What is the model of disability and health created by the WHO

A

ICF MODEL

28
Q

What is the medical term for pain in response to stimuli that does not usually produce pain?

A

Allodynia

29
Q

What type of small, unmyelinated nerve fibers transmit pain slowly to the CNS in response to noxious levels of mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimulation?

  • Pain transmitted by these fibers is usually dull, long-lasting, and aching.
  • Also called group IV afferents.
A

C-fibers

30
Q

What is the term for monochromatic, coherent, and directional light?

A

laser

31
Q

What is the term for the second phase of healing after tissue damage in which damaged structures are rebuilt and the wound is strengthened?

A

Proliferation

32
Q

What are 5 common contraindications in the use of modalities?

A
  1. pregnancy
  2. malignancy
  3. pacemaker (or other implanted electrical device)
  4. impaired sensation
  5. impaired mentation
33
Q

What is the term for the use of a dry heating agent that transfers heat by convection - it consists of a cabinet containing finely ground particles of cellulose through which heated air is circulated

A

Fluidotherapy

34
Q

What is the term for alterations in anatomical, physiological, or psychological structures or functions caused by an underlying pathology?

A

Impairments

35
Q

What is the term for the underlying tension in a muscle that serves as a background for contraction?

A

Muscle tone

36
Q

What is Central Sensitization?

A

Lowering of the firing threshold of spinal cord pain-transmitting neurons caused by increased input from peripheral nociceptors

37
Q

What theory of pain control and modulation states that pain is modulated at the peripheral, spinal cord, and cortical levels by endogenous neurotransmitters that have the same effect as opiates?

A

Endogenous opiate theory

38
Q

What book is used by physical therapists to categorize pts according to preferred practice patterns that include typical findings and descriptive norms of types and ranges of intervention for pts in each pattern?

A

“The Guide” Guide to physical therapist practice.

39
Q

What is the term for high muscle tone or increased resistance to stretch compared with normal muscles?

A

hypertonicity

40
Q

What theory of pain control and modulation states that pain is modulated at the spinal cord level by inhibitory effects of non noxious afferent input?

A

Gate control theory of pain modulation

41
Q

What modality involves the therapeutic use of intermittent shortwave radiation in which heat is not the mechanism of action?

A

Pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD)

42
Q

What is the general term for the use of electrical current to induce muscle contraction (motor level) or changes in sensation (sensory level)?

A

Electrical stimulation (ES)

43
Q

What is the term for the inability to perform activities required for self-care, home, work, or community roles?

A

Disability

44
Q

What is the term for systematic reviews that use statistical analysis to integrate data from a number of independent studies?

A

Metaanalyses

45
Q

What is the final phase of healing after tissue damage? (during this phase scar tissue is modified into its mature form)

A

Maturation phase

46
Q

What is Evidence Based Practice?

A

The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of an individual patients.

47
Q

what waxy substance can be warmed and used to coat the extremities for thermotherapy?

A

paraffin

48
Q

What is a functional limitation?

A

Any restriction in the ability to perform an activity in an efficient, typically expected, or competent manner

49
Q

What is the first phase of healing after tissue damage?

A

Inflammatory phase

50
Q

What is the term for low muscle tone or decreased resistance to stretch compared with normal muscle?

A

hypotonicity

51
Q

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

A

L.A.S.E.R.

52
Q

electromagnetic radiation in an ultraviolet range that lies between X-ray and visible light and has non thermal effects when absorbed through the skin.

A

Ultraviolet radiation (UV)

53
Q

Sound with a frequency greater than 20,000 cycles per second that is used as a physical agent to produce thermal and non-thermal effects

A

ultrasound

54
Q

this model uses categories of health conditions, body functions, activities, and participation to focus on abilities rather than limitations

A

ICF model

55
Q

The application of a mechanical force that increases external pressure on a body part to reduce swelling, improve circulation, or modify scar tissue formation

A

Compression

56
Q

healing by growth of epithelium over a denuded surface, thus reestablishing the epidermis.

A

Epithelialization

57
Q

Conditions in which a particular tx should be applied with special care or limitation also called relative contraindications

A

Precautions

58
Q

The application of ultrasound with a topical drug to facilitate transdermal drug delivery.

A

Phonophoresis

59
Q

an excess of blood in a tissue or organ

A

Hyperemia

60
Q

Alteration of anatomy or physiology as a result of disease or injury

A

Pathology

61
Q

Events of proliferation phase

A
  • Epithelialization
  • fibroplasia/Collagen production
  • Wound contracture
  • Neovasculation
62
Q

Events of inflammatory phase

A
  • Vasoconstriction
  • vasodilation
  • clot formation
  • phagocytosis
63
Q

Cells in many tissues and particularly wounds that are the primary producers of collagen

A

Fibroblasts

64
Q

Antibodies, hormones, cytokines, and a variety of other soluble proteins and chemicals that contribute to the inflammatory process

A

Humoral medications

65
Q

Events of inflammatory phase

A
  • vascular response
  • hemostatic response
  • cellular response
  • immune response
66
Q

the therapeutic use of water

A

Hydrotherapy

67
Q

At what point of tx should a PTA consider the position of the pt?

A

Before, during, and after

68
Q

3 categories of physical agents

A
  • thermal
  • mechanical
  • electromagnetic
69
Q

patient education for traction

A
  • don’t sneeze or cough during tx (it will increase intra abdominal pressure)
  • empty bladder
  • dont eat heavy prior to tx
70
Q

examples of electromagnetic agents

A
  • uv radiation
  • infrared radiation (IR)
  • laser diathermy
  • electrical current
71
Q

physical agents that apply energy to the pt in the form of electromagnetic radiation or electrical current

A

Electromagnetic agents

72
Q

Physical agents that apply force to increase or decrease pressure on the body

A

Mechanical agents

73
Q

Permanent shortening of muscle or scar tissue that produces deformity or distortion

A

contractures

74
Q

Thin clear wound fluid composed primarily of serum

-fluid first forms edema during inflammation

A

Transudate

75
Q

Term utilized to describe rapid, rhythmic muscle contractions in response to a quick stretch

A

Clonus

76
Q

What is the recumbent position

A

Lying down

77
Q

3 possible adverse effects of improper or prolonged positioning

A
  • ischemia
  • bedsores
  • tissue necrosis
78
Q

tissue composed of new blood vessels, connective tissue, fibroblasts, and inflammation cells that fills an open wound when it started to heal; typically appears deep pink or red with an irregular, berry-like surface (sugar like surface)

A

Granulation tissue

79
Q

The pulling together of the edges of an injured site to accelerate repair.

A

Wound contraction

80
Q

Model of disability created be the WHO that was a precursor to the ICF model and focused on disability rather than ability

A

ICIDH Model

81
Q

Inflammation that occurs immediately after tissue damage.

A

Acute inflammation

82
Q

the growth of new blood vessels

A

Angiogenesis

83
Q

White blood cells present early in inflammation that have the properties of chemotaxis and phagocytosis

A

Neutrophils

84
Q

The transcutaneous delivery of ions into the body for therapeutic purpose using an electrical current.

A

Iontophoresis

85
Q

a linear model of disability in which a pathology causes impairments, leading to functional limitations that lead to disabilities
-a precursor to the ICF model

A

NAGI model

86
Q

A glycoprotein that provides the extracellular framework for all multicellular organisms

A

Collagen

87
Q

Conditions under which a particular tx should not be applied.

A

Contraindications

88
Q

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or threatened tissue damage.

A

Pain

89
Q

Small, anuclear cells in the blood that assist in clotting.

A

Platelets

90
Q

Nerve-related contributions to the inflammatory process.

A

Neural Mediators

91
Q

Phagocytic cells that are derived from monocytes and important for attracting other immune cells to a site of inflammation

A

Macrophages

92
Q

3 phases of healing

A
  • Inflammation phase
  • proliferation phase
  • maturation phase
93
Q

Events of maturation phase

A
  • collagen synthesis/lysis balance
  • collagen fiber orientation
  • healed injury
94
Q

wound fluid composed of serum with a high content of protein and white blood cells

A

Exudate

95
Q

Be aware of patients with the following

A
  • poor sensation
  • paralysis
  • decreased skin integrity
  • poor nutrition
  • impaired or decreased circulation
  • predispositon for contracture development