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Flashcards in Chap 1 Gateway 2 Deck (28)
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1

What are examples of Fold Mountains?

Himalayas
Rocky Mountain
Andes

2

What is the process of folding?

It is the compression of rock layers into wave like structures

3

What is the upfold called?

anticline

4

What is the downfold called?

syncline

5

What are the different types of rocks?

Sedimentary
Igneous
Metamorphic

6

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

From multiple layers of sendiment

7

How are igneous rocks formed?

When molten rocks cool and solidfy

8

How are metamorphic rocks formed?

When rocks are changed by high temperatures or pressure within the crust

9

Where are young fold mountains located at?

Along the active plate boundaries

10

What are examples of rift valleys?

East African
Hutt Valley in New Zealand
Rhine Valley

11

What is a fault?

It is a fracture in the rocks along which the rocks are displaced

12

What causes a fault

The tensional forces when plates are pulled apart, result in parts of the fault being fractured

13

What is a rift valley?

It is valley with steep slides, where blocks of land subside between a pair of parallel faults

14

What is a block mountain?

It a block of land between a pair of parallel faults with steep slopes left standing higher when land mass surrounding it subside

15

What are examples of block mountains?

Vosges
Sierra Nevada
Black Forest

16

How is a Volcano formed?

It is landform formed by magma ejected from the mantle onto the earth's surface

17

What is a magma chamber?

It is reservoir of molten rock beneath the earth's crust

18

Where are volcanoes located at?

At divergent plate boundaries and convergent plate boundaries where there is subduction

19

What are vents?

Vents are openings in the earth's surface with a pipe leading into the magma chamber

20

What is magma ejected into the surface known as?

lava

21

What is the upward movement of the magma both into the earth's crust and onto the earth's surface known as

Vulcanicity

22

What is viscosity?

It refers to the stickiness of the lava or its resistance to flow

23

What is the most common types of volcanoes?

Shield volcanoes
Statovolcanoes

24

What determines the shape and sizes of volcanoes

It depends on the lava
Low silica lava with low viscosity flows easily and spreads out over a large area, forming shield volcanoes
High silica lava is more viscous and traps gases more easily, resulting in a build of pressure below the earth's surface. As the mag,a rises, the gases expand causing an outward explosion of lava, ash, rock fragments into the surrounding area. Stratovolcanoes develop from successive eruptions of lava and pyroclasts

25

What are pyroclasts?

it refers to ash, rock fragments and volcanic bombs ejected during a volcanic eruption

26

How is a caldera formed?

When the summit of a volcano is blown off during an explosive eruption, the sides of the crater collapse inwards due to ;loss of structural support.

27

Where are most volcanoes found at?

The Pacific ring of fire which is along the boundaries of several converging plates,

28

What are the plates along the Pacific ring of fire?

Pacific
Nazca
Philippine
Australian
Eurasian