Chap. 7: How Molecules Mix Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap. 7: How Molecules Mix Deck (39)
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Electrons in a compound are not distributed evenly. Instead, they tend to congregate preferentially to one side of the compound. 




What do you call a molecule that has a dipole?

A polar molecule.



Are ion-dipole attractions weaker or stronger than ionic bonds?

Ionic-dipole attractions are weaker than ionic bonds.



What happens to polar molecules when they are near an ionic compound?

The opposite charges electrically attract one another.

For example:

When sodium chloride molecules are near water molecules, a positive sodium ion attracts the negative side of a water molecule, and a negative chloride ion attracts the positive side of a water molecule. 

(Ion-Dipole Attraction)



Dipole-Dipole Attractions

An attraction between two polar molecules. 



Hydrogen Bond

An unusually strong dipole-dipole attraction. Usually occurs between molecules that have a hydogen atom covalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom (usually nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine).



Induced Dipole

A temporarily uneven distribution of electrons. 



What is an example of a dipole-induced dipole attraction?

Plastic wrap sticking to glass. 

These wraps are made of very long nonpolar molecules that are induced to have dipoles when placed in contact with glass, which is highly polar.





A term for larger atoms that can form an induced dipole more easily.




The component in a solution that is present in the largest amount.

For example:

When a teaspoon of sugar is mixed with 1 liter of water, the sugar is the solute and the water is the solvent.





Any component in a solution that is not the solvent.

For example:

When a teaspoon of sugar is mixed with 1 liter of water, the sugar is the solute and the water is the solvent.




The process of a solute's mixing with a solvent.


To make a solution, a solute must dissolve in a solvent; that is, the solute and solvent must form a (homogenous/heterogenous) mixture.

Homogenous mixture.



Saturated Solution

A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved.

For example:

When you add sugar to a glass of water, the rapidly dissolves. As you continue to add sugar, however, there comes a point when it no longer dissolves. Instead, it collects at the bottom of the glass, even after stirring. At this point, the water is saturated with sugar (the water cannot accept anymore sugar). 



Unsaturated Solution

A solution that has not reached the limit of solute that will dissolve. 



Concentration of Solution

The quantity of solute dissolved in a solution.

concentration = amount of solute / amount of solution



Amount of Solute


amount of solute = concentration of solution x volume of solution



Volume of Solution


volume of solution = amount of solute / concentration of solution


How many grams of sucrose are in 3 liters of an aqueous solution that has a concentration of 2 grams of sucrose per liter of solution?


A solution you are using in an experiment has a concentration of 10 grams of solute per liter of solution. If you pour enough of this solution into an empty laboratory flask so that the flask contains 5 grams of the solute, how many liters of the solution have you poured into the flask?





6.02 x 1023


One mole of gold = 6.02 x 1023 gold atoms

One mole of sucrose molecules = 6.02 x 1023 sucrose molecules



How many moles of sucrose are in 0.5 liter of a 2-molar solution? How many molecules of sucrose is this?

2-molar means 2 moles of sucrose per liter of solution. To get the amount of solute:

(2 moles/L) (0.5 L) = 1 mole, which is the same as 6.02 x 1023 molecules.



Does 1 liter of 1-molar solution of sucrose in water contain 1 liter of water, less than 1 liter of water, or more than 1 liter of water?

Molarity: The number of liters of solution (not solvent).

When sucrose is added to a given volume of water, the volume of the solution increases.

So if 1 mole of sucrose is added to a given volume of water, the result is more than 1 liter of solution.

Therefore, 1 liter of a 1-molar solution requires less than 1 liter of water.




The ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent.

Solubility mainly depends on the attractions between the fundamental particles of the solute and solvent.




If a solute has any solubility in a solvent, then that solute is soluble.



What is an example of an infinitely soluable solute?

Ethanol and water.

Infinitely soluble: A solute that has no practical point of saturation in a given solvent. 

The hydrogen bonds among water molecules are about as strong as those between ethanol molecules. These two liquids therefore mix together quite well in just about any proportion.

We can even add ethanol to water until the ethanol, rather than the water, becomes the solvent.


What is an example of a solute that has very little solubility in a given solvent?

Oxygen in water.

Only 0.004 gram of oxygen can dissolve in 100 millileters of water.

The only attractions that occur between oxygen molecules and water molecules are relatively weak dipole-induced dipole attractions.




A material that does not dissolve in a solvent to any extent.

For example:

Sand and glass (although they are both soluable in hydrofluoric acid).

Styrofoam (although it is partially soluable in nail polish remover).



Why isn't sucrose infinitely soluble in water?

The attraction between two sucrose molecules is much stronger than the attraction between a sucrose molecule and a water molecule.

Because of this, sucrose dissolves in water only as long as the number of water molecules is way more than the number of sucrose molecules.

When there are two few water molecules to dissolve any additional sucrose, the solution is saturated.



Does solubility change with temperature? How?


Take, for example, sucrose in water.

By heating water almost to the boiling point, the hot water molecules will have greater kinetic energy and therefore will collide with the solid solute (sucrose) more vigorously.

The collisions will break up the particle-to-particle attractions in the solid.