Chap. 9 - SZO, the basics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap. 9 - SZO, the basics Deck (46):
1

Psychotic implies...

Impaired or deficient reality testing

2

Hallucinations

False sensory experiences without the presence of a stimulus

3

Delusions

Fixed, false beliefs maintained despite evidence to the contrary

4

Illusions

Misperceptions of actual stimuli

5

SZO risk in general population

1%

6

SZO risk if both parents have SZO

40%

7

Monozygotic concordance in SZO

50%

8

SZO - SNP or CNV?

SNP

9

Intrauterine insults that may lead to SZO

Toxins, including viruses
Oxygen deprivation
Malnutrition
Substance use

10

Three brain structures that are smaller in the SZO individual

Hippocampus
Frontal and temporal lobes

11

These brain structures are enlarged in the SZO individual

Ventricles

12

In SZO, DA is increased in the _____ pathway and decreased in the _____ pathway

Excess DA in the mesolimbic
Decreased DA in the mesocortical

13

In SZO....
Glutamate is increased or decreased?
GABA is increased or decreased?

Glutamate increased
GABA decreased

14

In SZO, serotonin is increased or decreased?

Decreased

15

SZO - higher rates in urban or rural areas?

Urban

16

SZO - higher rates in first-born or children or later-born?

First-born

17

SZO and men:
Onset?
More or less negative sx than women?
Prognosis and response to tx better or worse than women?

Onset 18-25
More negative sx than women
Worse prognosis and worse tx response than women

18

More hallucinations and delusions - men or women?

Women

19

Hypnopompic hallucinations

False perceptions upon waking up
Not considered pathological

20

Hypnogogic hallucinations

False perceptions as one is falling asleep
Not considered pathological

21

Positive sx respond better to typicals or atypicals?

Typicals

22

Positive sx are an excess or deficit of normal brain fxn?

Excess

23

Positive sx are caused by:
Increased or decreased? DA in the mesolimbic or mesocortical? pathway

Increased DA in the mesolimbic

24

Negative sx respond better to typicals or atypicals?

Atypicals

25

Negative sx are an excess or deficit of normal brain fxn?

Deficit

26

Negative sx are caused by:
Increased or decreased? DA in the mesolimbic or mesocortical? pathway

Decreased DA in the mesocortical

27

Sx must persist for __ months for dx of SZO

6 months

28

Later age of SZO onset = better or worse prognosis?

Better prognosis

29

Disorganized SZO is the most/least? severe type, and paranoid type is the most/least? sever type

Disorganized is most severe
Paranoid is least severe

30

Echolalia

Repeating the last heard words of others

31

Exhopraxia

Imitation of observed behavior or movements

32

Astereognosis

Loss of ability to recognize form of an object by touch

33

Dysdiadochokinesia

Impairment of ability to perform rapidly alternating movements

34

Structurally speaking, the only noted enlargements in the SZO brain are in the _____ _____

Lateral ventricles

35

Clozaril - you must monitor ___ labs q __ weeks for __ months, then q __ weeks for __ months, then q __ weeks for how long?

WBC/neuts q week for 6 months, then q 2 weeks for 6 months, then q 4 weeks forever

36

Seroquel - monitor what lab primarily?

LFTs

37

Zyprexa - 4 monitors

BMI
Waist circumference
FBG
Lipids

38

Geodon - monitor what parameter?

QTc

39

Abilify - monitor labs, or is this a pretty neutral drug?

Fairly neutral

40

SGAs, in the mesolimbic pathway, will _____ dopamine, thereby _____ positive sx

block dopamine, reducing positive sx

41

SGAs, in the mesocorticol pathway, will _____ dopamine, thereby _____ negative sx

increase dopamine, reducing negative sx

42

In the nigrostriatal pathway, as DA increases, ACh _____

decreases

43

EPS is caused by increased or decreased ACh?

increased

44

In the tuberoinfundibular pathway, as dopamine is blocked (or, decreases) then prolactin is _____, causing _____.

Prolactin increases, causing galactorrhea

45

Hyperprolactemia in women may cause....(4)

Sexual side effects
Galactorrhea
Amenorrhea
Bone demineralization (if post-menopausal and not on estrogen)

46

Because the FGAs block dopamine in the mesocortical pathway, these drugs actually made the _____ symptoms worse

Negative symptoms