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Flashcards in chapt 9 Deck (17):
1

ectoderm,

nervous system and skin

2

endoderm

gut and digestive organs

3

mesoderm

skeletal and voluntary muscle

4

The 5 neurodevelopmental phases

1.) INduction of the nueral plate

2.) neural proliferation

3. aggregation and migration

4.) axon growth

5.) synapse formation

5

totipotent

(of an immature or stem cell) capable of giving rise to any cell type or (of a blastomere) a complete embryo.

6

multiponent

Multipotency describes progenitor cells which have the gene activation potential to differentiate into multiple, but limited cell types.

7

The role of genesis time in determining future cell type

8

Somal vs. Glial-mediated migration

somal = cell body moves along the extension growing from a developing cell

 

glial = cell moves along a radial glial network

  managed by glia mediated migration
  migratory paths are established as the cells migrate outwards
  neighboring cells are likely to follow along the same path
  some of these radio glial cell transform into ASTROCYTES

9

Roger Sperry and frog’s optic nerves

10

 A general understanding of pioneer growth cones and the blueprint hypothesis

**chemical signals repel or attract neurons** 

11

A general understanding of columnar organization and the Protomap hypothesis

columns of cells form as they migrate
cells near reman near, remote remain remote
cortical column == a principle unit of cortical organization

12

 Reeler mice

genetic mutation reorients radial glia
laminar organization or cells is inverted
mice demonstrate
  reduced cerebellar volume
  relling gait
  abnormal muscular contractions and postures
  tremor
**radial glia migration was wrong**
**neurons were not really in the right place**
 

13

necrosis

 bad form of cell death
involves the real ease of toxins into the environment of the brain
remained becomes necrotic and can increase the amount of cell death

14

apoptosis

 planned cell death
genetically determined events trigger cell death
body can dispose of this kind of cell efficiently 

15

Contributions to increased brain volume after birth

1.) Synaptogensis
2.) myelenation
3.) branching of dendrites

16

Enriched vs. impoverished environments (esp. with respect to vision)

17

Neuroplasticity