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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (23):
1

systematic research 

research is a process

2

scientific method

a research process considered to consist of a series of sequential steps

3

internal validity 

extent to which results can be interpreted accurately with no plausible alternative explanations

4

external validity

extent to which results can be genaralized to populations. situations, and conditions

5

reliability

consistency of the research and the extent to which studies can be replicated

 

a necessary characteristic for validity

 

6

basic research 

primary purpose is adding to the existing body of knowledge

7

applied research 

solution of an immediate, practical problem

8

action research 

usually conducted by education professional to solve a specific problem or aid in decision making at the local level 

9

experimental research method

at least one variable is manipulated to determine the effect of the manipulation. Subjects are randomly assigned to experiemental treatments.

10

quasi-experiemental method

at least one variable is manipulated to determine the effect of the manipulation. Intact, naturally formed groups are used. 

11

nonexperimental quantitative method

the incidence, relationships, and distributions of variables are studied. Variable are not manipulated but studied as they occur in a natural setting. 

12

historical method

a description of past events or facts is developed

13

ethnographic

a holistic description of present phenomena is developed within the broad meaning of culture

14

role of theory

provides a framework for conducting research, can be used for synthesizing and explaining (through generalizations) research results

15

Research process

A image thumb
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law of parsimony

a theory should be stated in the simplest form that adequately explains the phenomena

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Nature of Education Research 

Empirical 

Systematic

Valid

Reliable 

Many Forms

 

"Every Scholar Values Research Methods"

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Empirical

derived from our sense experiences

19

Systematic

There is always a chain of logic from conceptualization to collecting and analyzing data, to presenting findings

20

Valid

How well are the results and claims  supported by the evidence? Are they justified?

 

Internal Validity
To what extent can the results be interpreted accurately?
Ex: Study of student reading proficiency in two  schools
But different approaches to reading: whole language, phonics 
But different  reading assessments:  read aloud or explain meaning

External Validity
To what extent can the results be generalized to specific populations, situations, and conditions?
Ex. Different college  experiences: domestic vs international students
Ex. Reading strategies for different grade levels

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Reliable

Internal Reliability: How consistent was the research in measuring the phenomenon?
Logistics/coordination issues/ conditions
    Instrument/tool  integrity
    Ex:  Survey administration

External Reliability: Can this research be replicated?
Description of procedures clear
Is the population too unique or difficult to access?

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Many Forms

“Paradigms,” ,“orientations, “ways of thinking”  about a phenomenon

Most visible in Theoretical Framework/Problem Formulation. 

They reflect assumptions about cause-effect and the role of values in research(er) choices.

Examples:
Positivist:  “One reality exists, and I can discover it”

 

Post-positivist: “What I study and how I study it reflect our values and conditions at the time.” [probabilities]

Constructionist: “I do not impose a theory, I build one from the views and experiences of those living in a specific context.”

 

Transformative: “Research is political. I examine undervalued populations to improve their condition and/or raise awareness.”
 

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