Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (30):
Transformation of materials into items of greater value by means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations
Compare: Discrete vs. Continuous Process
Discrete: Individual parts and assembled products.
Continuous: Items produced continuously; ex. oil refinery or steel metal coiling.
Define: Production Quanity
Low: 1 - 100 units/yr
Medium: 100-10,000 units/yr
High: 10,000 + units/yr
Define: Product Variety
Soft: When there are small differences among products; ex. car model differences but same make
Hard: When products differ substantially and there are a few common parts, if any.
Refers to the scope of technical and physical capabilities and limitation of a manufacturing company and each of its plants. Three factors:
1) Technological Processing Capability
2) Physical Size and Weight of Product
3) Production Capacity
Define: Shaping Processes
Alter the geometry of the starting work material by various methods including casting, forging, and machining. Four Classifications:
1) Solidification Processes
2) Particulate Processing
3) Deformation Processes
4) Material Removal Processes
Define: Surface Processing Operations
Performed to clean, treat, coat, or deposit material onto the exterior surface of the work; includes cleaning, surface treatments, and coating and thin deposition processes.
Define: Permanent Joining Processes
Includes: welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding.
Define: Mechanical Fastening
The use of a joint that can be conveniently disassembled; includes screws, bolts, and other threaded fasteners.
Define: Assembly Operations
Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity
Define: Machine Tools
Power-driven machines used to operate cutting tools previously operated by hand
Equipment used to customize the production machinery for the particular part or product.
Define: Job Shop
Generally refers to a low-yield production facility (1-100 units/yr) making small quantities of specialized and customized products
Define: Fixed-Position Layout
Layout used for large and heavy products, where typically it remains in a single location during its fabrication or assembly. Workers and processing equipment are brought to the product.
Define: Batch Production
Generally used in the medium quantity range (100-10,000 units/yr), this approach will make a batch of one product and once this product is entirely finished, will change over the system to produce a batch of the next product
Define: Cellular Manufacturing
The processing or assembly of different parts or products by cells consisting of several workstations or machines; Each cell is designed to produce a limited variety of part configurations
Define: Mass Production
The high-quantity range (10,000 + units/yr); Includes quantity production and flow line production
Define: Flow Line
Involves Multiple pieces of equipment or workstations arranged in sequence, and the work units are physically moved through the sequence to complete the product.
Define: Product Layout
The layout of a flow line; generally consists of one long line or a series of connect line segments. Work is moved between stations using a conveyor; ex. assembly line
Define: Lean Production
The use of fewer workers and less equipment to accomplish more production in less time, and yet achieve higher quality in the final product. Centers around eliminating waste.
Define: Six Sigma
A Quality focused program aimed to reduce variability in the company's processes and products, which utilizes worker teams to accomplish projects aimed at improving operational performance.
The use of outside contractors to perform work that was traditionally accomplished in-house.
Define: Green Manufacturing
Programs that seek to determine the most efficient use of materials and natural resources in production and minimize the negative consequences on the environment. Include"
1) Design products to minimize carbon footprint
2)Design Environmentally friendly processes
Define: Design for Environement (DFE)
Techniques that attempt to consider environmental impact during product design prior to production. Includes considerations such as:
1) selecting materials
2) selecting processes
3) designing parts
4) designing products to be dissassembled
5) designing products that minimize the use of hazardous materials
6) considering disposal techniques
Define: Concurrent Engineering
Refers to an approach to product design in which companies attempt to reduce the elapsed time required to bring a new product to market by integrating design engineering, manufacturing engineering, and other functions in the company.
Define: Design for Manufacturing
An approach to product design that systematically includes consideration of manufacturability and assemblability in the design.
Define: Simultaneous Engineering
Another name for Concurrent Engineering; refers to manufacturing planning while the product design is being developed
Define: Life Cycle Design
Refers to the product after it has been manufactured; design decisions that impact that installation, maintenance, repair, spare parts, and future upgrades
Explain: General Principles of DFM/A (& Include Examples?)
Design for manufacture and/or assembly requires changes to organizational structure to provide closer interaction and better communication between design and manufacturing personal. Often this accomplished by project teams.