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Abnormal Psychology Fall 2016 > Chapter 1 & 2 Study Guide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 & 2 Study Guide Deck (24)
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1

Biopsychosocial

A model in which the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors is seen as influencing the development of the individual

-the interaction in which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors play a role in the development of an individual's symptoms

-incorporates a developmental viewpoint (individual must be seen as changing overtime)

-factors interact to alter the individuals expression of behavioral patterns over time
It's important to examine early risk factors that make an individual vulnerable to developing a disorder
Risk factors may vary according to the individuals position in the life span

2

Stigma

A label that causes certain people to be regarded as different, defective, and set apart from mainstream members of society.

-sociocultural

-a label that causes us to regard certain people as different, defective, and set a part from mainstream members of society

-deters people from obtaining badly needed help, and perpetuates a cycle which many people in need become much worse

-affects people from ethnic and racial minorities worse than those from mainstream society.

-European american teens and caregivers are twice as likely to define problems in mental health or seek help for problems

3

Traditions of belief about abnormal causes and approach to treatment:

S........
H...........
S.........

Spiritual

Humanitarian

Scientific

4

Spiritual

Regard abnormal behavior as the product of possession by evil or demonic spirits

-trephining to "release spirits"

-exorcism (physically and mentally painful form of torture carried out by a shaman, priest, or medicine man.

5

Humanitarian

View psychological disorders as the result of cruelty, stress, or poor living conditions.

-in part as a reaction against the spiritual approach and its punishments of people with psychological disorders

-poorhouses and mo estuaries became shelters, couldn't offer treatment but gave them protection... Until overcrowding occurred (abuses occurred)

-believed they were insensitive to extremes of heat and cold, or cleanliness of their surroundings

-"treatment" involved bleeding, forced vomiting, and purging

-18th century reform, hospitals in France, Scotland, and England, attempted to reverse harsh treatments...
"Moral treatment" (notion that people could develop self-control over their behaviors if they had a quiet and restful environment
-only used restraints if necessary

-until 1970s people were put in "back wards", restrained with tranquilizing drugs and straight jackets, coats, behavior altering brain surgery, electric shocks to control unruly patients

-1963 large discharge happened, 1970's were pretty empty
Deinstitutionalization

6

Scientific

-Benjamin Rush 1783

-Sigmund Freud 1856-1973

-Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936

-B.F. Skinner 1904-1990

Look for causes that we can objectively measure, such as biological alterations, faulty learning processes, or emotional stressors.

Benjamin Rush
-Advocated for improvements, placed patients in their own wards, gave them occupational therapy, prohibited visits from people seeking entertainment
-supported use of bloodletting and purging, tranquilizer chair to reduce bloodflow to the brain
-submerged them in cold baths, death threats to frighten them (believed over excitement caused violent behavior)

Sigmund Freud
-psychoanalysis (unconscious mind, inhibited sexual impulses, and early development)

Ivan Pavlov
-classical conditioning

B.F. Skinner
-operant conditioning (specifying the types and nature of reinforcement as a way to modify behavior)

Positive Psychology
-perspective that emphasizes the potential for growth and change throughout life
-prevention rather than intervention

7

Modern psychiatry

S........
K........
E........... (I.......... And d........)
C............
P........./I........

Scientific

Kraepelin

Experimental (independent and dependent)
-independent variable, meaning that the investigator controls it. The variable whose level is adjusted or controlled by the experimenter.
-dependent variable, the variable that is observed. The variable whose value is the outcome of the experimenters manipulation of the independent variable.

Correlational
-positive correlation= as one increases the other increases
-negative correlation= as one increases the other decreases

Prevalence
-refers to the number of people who have EVER had the disorder over a specified period of time

Incidence
-the frequency of NEW cases of a disorder within a given time
Used to determine how quickly a disorder is spreading (epidemic)

8

Modern psychiatry:

Experimental

Independent and dependent

Experimental
-essence of the scientific method is objectivity, the process of testing ideas about the nature of psychological phenomena without the bias before accepting these ideas as adequate explanations


Independent

Dependent

9

Modern psychiatry:

Prevalence/incidence

Prevalence
-refers to the number of people who have EVER had the disorder over a specified period of time

Incidence
-the frequency of NEW cases of a disorder within a given time
Used to determine how quickly a disorder is spreading (epidemic)

10

Patient/Client

Individuals seeking psychological intervention

Patient
-connotation of a passive rather than active participant
-in the medical model, a person who receives treatment

Client
-a person seeking psychological treatment
-reflects the view that the people in treatment collaborate with those who treat them

11

Mental health professionals

Psychologist
-healthcare professional offering psychological service

Clinician
-the person providing the treatment
-doesn't have to have a PhD, it's anyone who provides treatment

Psychiatrist
-people with degrees in medicine (MDs)
-receive specialized advanced training in diagnosing and treating people with psychological disorders

Clinical Psychologist
-a mental health professional with training in the behavioral sciences who provides direct service to clients

It takes 3-4 weeks for medicine to work

12

DSM/ICD
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
International classification of disease

Reliability/Validity?

Reliability
-the degree to which clinicians provide diagnoses CONSISTENTLY across individuals who have a particular set of symptom

Validity
-the extent to which a test, diagnosis, or rating ACCURATELY and distinctly characterizes a person's psychological status
-assessment and testing

13

Culture-bound syndromes

Recurrent patterns of abnormal behavior or experience that are limited to specific or cultural areas

14

Treatment

-Plan/Sequence

-Locations

-Modalities

-Plan/Sequence
The outline for how therapy should take place
Goals of treatment
1) immediate or acute, ask/document if suicidal
2) short term, get engaged in therapy, to take meds, refill meds, and keep appointments
3) long term, learning coping skills, released from therapist and not be dependent on them

-Locations
Determine treatment site
Psychiatric hospital, specialized inpatient treatment center, outpatient treatment, halfway house and day treatment programs, etc.

-Modalities
Form in which the clinician offers psychotherapy
Individual therapy, family therapy, group therapy, milieu therapy (therapeutic home or workplace)

15

Comorbidity

The situation that occurs when multiple diagnostic conditions occur simultaneously within the same individual

Major depression and OCD exist together

16

Differential diagnosis

The process of systematically ruling out alternative diagnoses

-delirium vs dementia, both deal with memory, is there fluctuation in daily memory? Rule one out this way.

-principal diagnosis
The disorder that is considered to be the primary reason the individual seeks professional help
Might put 2-3 down and later rule out some to identify the diagnosis

17

Abnormal

involves disturbance of psychological f....... Or b.......

Psychological f.......... associated with d....... or i......... that is not typical or culturally appropriate

Abnormal behavior that involves disturbance of psychological function or behavior

Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment that is not typical or culturally appropriate

18

Criteria for a psychological disorder

1) clinical s...........

2) d.......

3) b....... that cannot be a s....... a......... r.......

4) p............ or b......... disturbance

5) b....... that cannot be defined in terms of s..... r........ or d.......

1) clinical significance

2) distress

3) behavior that cannot be a socially acceptable response

4) psychological or biological disturbance

5) behavior that cannot be defined in terms of social rebellion or deviance

19

Biological

Genetic

Physiological change

Toxic exposure

20

Psychological

Past learning

Maladaptive thought pattern

Bad stress coping

21

Sociocultural

Social policies

Discrimination

Stigma

22

Advantage to the scientific method?

Human opinion is taken out

23

Quasi experimental

Does not have randomly assigned groups

24

Emil Kraepelin

Founder of psychopharmacology

DSM