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zoology

study of animal life

1

vertebrate

animal w/ backbone

2

5 groups we study

fish
amphibians
reptiles
birds
mammals

3

what phylum do vertebrates belong to?

cordates

4

what was the the notochord replaced by in vertebrates?

endoskeleton

5

what was the dorsal nerve cord replaced by in vertebrates?

spinal cord w/ a brain

6

vertebrae

bones/cartilage that surround spinal cord

7

axial skeleton

skeletal system made up of backbone and skull

8

appendicular skeleton

skeletal system made up of limbs

9

what would a person use in phylogeny to show possible pathways of evolution?

fossils/ comparative anatomy

10

why do we classify organisms?

to organize them into similar groups and make them easier to identify

11

how are animals classified?

into related groups by their genetic and structural similarities to other animals

12

taxonomy

field of science that classifies organisms and defines their relationships with one another

13

how many levels of classification exist?

7

14

what are the levels of classification?

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus

15

which two levels are the most important?

genus and species

16

common names? example

everyday names for organisms we use. ex: skunk

17

binomial nomenclature

scientific name of an organism

18

what two levels of classification give organism its binomial name?

genus and species

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how do you identify which animals would be most closely related based on their binomial names?

if their binomial names are similar then so are they

20

dichotomous key

used to identify organisms based of physical characteristics

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how do dichotomous keys work?

series of paired opposite statements that describe physical characteristics of different organisms

22

cladistics

method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades

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what is a cladogram?

diagram that shows how organisms are related based on evolution

24

when do you use a dichotomous key? when do you use a cladogram? how are they diff

dicho: for species identification
clado: to understand ancestor derived characteristics of relationships

25

morphology

study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific features.

26

how have vertebrates evolved in embryo development?

increase in adaptations to the terrestrial environment

27

what is an animals anatomy related to?

its method to obtaining food and enviornment

28

difference between homo and hetero dont teeth?

homo:similar in shape and size
hetero:different in shape and size

29

how have bones and muscles evolved in vertebrates?

limbs and muscles adapted to give them better support and mobility

30

how is a way an animal moves controlled?

its size and structure

31

what is homeostasis?

stable internal enviornment

32

endothermic

stable internal temperature independent of environmental fluctuations

33

ectothermic

rely on environments to regulate their internal temperatures

34

how has the circulatory system evolved in vertebrates?

greater number of chambers in heart

35

# of heart chambers of a fish

2

36

# of heart chambers of a reptile

3

37

# of heart chambers of birds and mammals

4

38

how had the respiratory system evolved in vertebrates?

gills to lungs

39

simple stomach

omniovores/ carnivores. eat meat and plants

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ruminant stomach

eat plants only

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aviab stomach

diff compartments meant to grind down food since birds have no teeth

42

how has nervous system evolved in vertebrates?

became more complex, allow for more varied responses to environment

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how had reproduction evolved in vertebrates?

towards internal fertilization and internal development

44

oviparous

vertebrates that lay eggs

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ovoviviparous

vertebrates with eggs that remain inside mother

46

viviparous

embryos that are nourished inside the mother by a placenta until they give birth to live young

47

ethology

study of social animal behaviors

48

ethogram

quantitive description of an animals normal behavior

49

instinctive behavior

evident at birth

50

learned behavior

behaviors learned by animals through life experiences

51

diff between learned and instinctive behaviors. provide examples of both

instinctive: behavior evident at birth.
learned: behavior learned through life experiences
ex:
bears- instinct to hibernate in winter and leave den in spring. cubs learn about dens from their mothers and return to dens they have been to before

52

what have evolutionary trends among vertebrates shown us?

increase in complexity of body structures and behaviors

53

phylogeny

study of the connections between all groups of organisms as understood by ancestor relationships