Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (54):
study of animal life
animal w/ backbone
5 groups we study
what phylum do vertebrates belong to?
what was the the notochord replaced by in vertebrates?
what was the dorsal nerve cord replaced by in vertebrates?
spinal cord w/ a brain
bones/cartilage that surround spinal cord
skeletal system made up of backbone and skull
skeletal system made up of limbs
what would a person use in phylogeny to show possible pathways of evolution?
fossils/ comparative anatomy
why do we classify organisms?
to organize them into similar groups and make them easier to identify
how are animals classified?
into related groups by their genetic and structural similarities to other animals
field of science that classifies organisms and defines their relationships with one another
how many levels of classification exist?
what are the levels of classification?
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus
which two levels are the most important?
genus and species
common names? example
everyday names for organisms we use. ex: skunk
scientific name of an organism
what two levels of classification give organism its binomial name?
genus and species
how do you identify which animals would be most closely related based on their binomial names?
if their binomial names are similar then so are they
used to identify organisms based of physical characteristics
how do dichotomous keys work?
series of paired opposite statements that describe physical characteristics of different organisms
method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades
what is a cladogram?
diagram that shows how organisms are related based on evolution
when do you use a dichotomous key? when do you use a cladogram? how are they diff
dicho: for species identification
clado: to understand ancestor derived characteristics of relationships
study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific features.
how have vertebrates evolved in embryo development?
increase in adaptations to the terrestrial environment
what is an animals anatomy related to?
its method to obtaining food and enviornment
difference between homo and hetero dont teeth?
homo:similar in shape and size
hetero:different in shape and size
how have bones and muscles evolved in vertebrates?
limbs and muscles adapted to give them better support and mobility
how is a way an animal moves controlled?
its size and structure
what is homeostasis?
stable internal enviornment
stable internal temperature independent of environmental fluctuations
rely on environments to regulate their internal temperatures
how has the circulatory system evolved in vertebrates?
greater number of chambers in heart
# of heart chambers of a fish
# of heart chambers of a reptile
# of heart chambers of birds and mammals
how had the respiratory system evolved in vertebrates?
gills to lungs
omniovores/ carnivores. eat meat and plants
eat plants only
diff compartments meant to grind down food since birds have no teeth
how has nervous system evolved in vertebrates?
became more complex, allow for more varied responses to environment
how had reproduction evolved in vertebrates?
towards internal fertilization and internal development
vertebrates that lay eggs
vertebrates with eggs that remain inside mother
embryos that are nourished inside the mother by a placenta until they give birth to live young
study of social animal behaviors
quantitive description of an animals normal behavior
evident at birth
behaviors learned by animals through life experiences
diff between learned and instinctive behaviors. provide examples of both
instinctive: behavior evident at birth.
learned: behavior learned through life experiences
bears- instinct to hibernate in winter and leave den in spring. cubs learn about dens from their mothers and return to dens they have been to before
what have evolutionary trends among vertebrates shown us?
increase in complexity of body structures and behaviors