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3 classes of fish

agnatha, chondrichyte, osteichthyes

1

most important evolution adaptations for fish?

jaws and paired fins

2

swim bladder

thin walled sac filled with gas that allows fish to float w/o effort

3

what type of digestive system do fish have?

simple stomach

4

what 3 functions do gills serve?

-exchange of gases
-removal of nitrogen waste
-osmoregulation of water/ion concentration remain balanced

5

describe respiratory system

Gills are used for breathing in fish. These are external organs that exchange gases in the water.

6

operculum

hard plate on both sides of head, protects and allows water to flow through the mouth to the gills

7

how do freshwater fish stay balanced?

constantly urinate

8

how do saltwater fish keep balanced?

urinate less, drink sea water to replace lost water.

9

lateral line

sensory structure detects changes in temp, pressure, current, and vibrations

10

describe their circulatory system

2 chambered heart, very simple.

11

chromataphores

structures containing pigments that provide color patterns, found in the skin layer.

12

fish are cold blooded. what does this mean?

ectothermic, really on external environment to adjust body temp

13

describe cycloid scales

smooth

14

describe ganoid scales

thick bony, don't form rings

15

describe ctenoid scales

toothed edge

16

oviparous

lay eggs

17

ovoviviparous

eggs stay inside mouth until they hatch

18

viviparous

give birth to live young

19

spawning

external fertilization of eggs

20

fry

fish hatchlings

21

agnatha characteristics

breathe thru gills
no paired fins
cartilage
no backbone
eel-like body
no lateral line

22

Chondrichthyes characteristics

cartilage
paired fins
placoid scales
no swim bladder
7 gill slits
rows of teeth

23

what 3 types of fish belong to chondrichthyes? what type of scales would you find on them

sharks rayes and skates.
placoid scales- tooth like dermal spines on scales

24

ray finned fish characteristics

bony skeleton
swim bladder
4 gills covered by operculum
paired fins
scales
later line

25

where would you find the dorsal fin? what is its job?

top of fish, keeps fish upright.

26

where would you find the caudal fin? what is its job?

posterior end of fish, allows fish to move forward

27

where would you find the pectoral fins and pelvic fins? what do they do?

pectoral- sides of fish most anterior
pelvic- sides of fish most posterior
help steer, brake, move up and down, and orient body at rest.

28

diadromous

fish that migrate between freshwater and saltwater habitats

29

aggregation

collection of fish that have gathered togethor

30

shoaling

group of fish that stay togethor for social reasons, independent, fish of diff species and sizes

31

schooling

group swimming in same direction in a coordinated manner. same color and size

32

what are the differences between schooling and schoaling?

schooling- all the same size and color going in the same coordinated direction
schoaling- different sizes and colors, swimming independently in same gen area

33

ichthyology

branch of zoology that studies fish

34

aqua culturist

someone that raises domesticated fish for human consumption/use

35

describe freshwater habitats

40% of all fish are found in freshwater. springs, pounds, rivers, lakes, etc.

36

describe saltwater habitats

covers 71% of earth surface, includes oceans and estuaries

37

what is a dog shark's scientific name?

squalus acanthlas

38

why are dog sharks also known as spiny dogfish?

they have 2 spines

39

how do dog sharks reproduce?

ovoviviparous

40

how long do dog shark females stay pregnant?

22-24 months

41

why are dogfish called dogfish?

they travel and hunt in packs like doga

42

how do dogfish defend themselves?

they use their back spines. curling around in a bow and striking

43

what would happen if freshwater fish didnt keep balanced in water?

their cells would pop and they'd die.

44

what would happen if saltwater fish didn't keep balanced in water?

they'd dehydrate and die.

45

what is an example of why lacking a swim bladder would be an advantage?

for example, in sharks not having a swim bladder is an advantage because it allows them to move between different depths without the risk of exploding or imploding.

46

what body adaptations are different in sharks due to not having a swim bladder?

they have huge livers filled with oil, because oil is lighter then water it provides the shark with additional buoyancy