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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (23):
1

Adaptation

Any heritable trait that increase the fitness of an individual with that trait, compared with individuals without that trait, in a particular environment.

2

Cell

A highly organized compartment bounded by a thin, flexible structure (plasma membrane) and containing concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.

3

Cell Theory

The theory that all organisms are made of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells.

4

Control

In a scientific experiment, a group of organisms or samples that do not receive the experimental treatment but are otherwise identical to the group that does.

5

Domain

1) A taxonomic category, based on similarities in basic cellular biochemistry, above the kingdom level. The three recognized domains are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. 2) A section of a protein that has a distinction tertiary structure and function.

6

Eukaryote

Amember of the domain Eukarya; an organism whose cells contain a nucleus, numerous membrane-bound organelles, and an extensive cytoskeleton. May be unicellular or multicellular. Compare with Prokaryote.

7

Genus (pl: Genera)

In Linnaeus' system, a taxonomic category of closely related species. Always italicized and capitalized to indicate that it is a recognized scientific genus.

8

Heritable

Referring to traits that can be transmitted from one generation to the next.

9

Hypothesis

A testable statement that explains a phenomenon or a set of observations.

10

LUCA

The last universal common ancestor of cells. This theoretical entity is proposed to be the product of chemical evolution and provided characteristics of life that are shared by all living organisms on Earth today.

11

Natural Selection

The process by which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to produce more surviving offspring than do individuals without those traits, often leading to a change in the genetic makeup of the population. A major mechanism of evolution.

12

Null Hypothesis

A hypothesis that specifies what the results of an experiment will be if the main hypothesis being tested is wrong. Often states that there will be no difference between experimental groups.

13

Organism

Any living entity that contains one or more cells.

14

Phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a group of organisms.

15

Phylum

(plural: phyla) In Linnaeus' system, a taxonomic category above the class level and below the kingdom level. In plants, sometimes called a division.

16

Population

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same geographic area at the same time.

17

Prediction

A measurable or observable result of an experiment based on a particular hypothesis. A correct prediction provides support for the hypothesis being tested.

18

Prokaryote

A member of the domain Bacteria or Archaea; a unicellular organism lacking a nucleus and containing relatively few organelles or cytoskeletal components. Compare with eukaryote.

19

Scientific name

The unique, two-part name given to each species, with a genus name followed by a species name—as in Homo sapiens. Scientific names are always italicized, and are also known as Latin names.

20

Speciation

The evolution of two or more distinct species from a single ancestral species.

21

Taxon

(plural: taxa) Any named group of organisms at any level of a classification system.

22

Taxonomy

The branch of biology concerned with the classification and naming of organisms.

23

Theory

An explanation for a broad class of phenomena that is supported by a wide body of evidence. A theory serves as a framework for the development of new hypotheses.