Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (35):

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## Statistic

### Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing,summarizing, and interpreting data.

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## Population

### The entire set if the individuals of interest for a particular research question

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## Sample

### Set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in the research study

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## Variable

### A characteristic or condition that charges or has different values for different individuals

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## Data

### Data of datum; measurements or observations.

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## Data set

### Is a collection of measurement of observations

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## Datum or raw score

### Singular for data; is a single measurement or observation

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## Parameter

### Is a value, usually a numerical value to describe a population. A parameter usually derived from measurements of the individuals in a population.

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## Statistic

### A value, usually a numerical value, that describes a sample. Usually derives from measurements of individuals in the sample.

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## Descriptive statistic

### Statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data.

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## Inferential statistical

### Consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected.

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## Sampling error

### Is the naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter.

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## Correlation method

###
Two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them.

One group of individuals

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## Experimental method

### One variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured. To established a cause and effect relationship between and two variables, an experiment attempts to control all other variables to prevent them from influencing the results

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## Independent variable

### Variable that is manipulated by the researcher. In behavioral research, it usually consists of two or more treatment conditions to which subjects are exposed. Consists of antecedent conditions that are manipulated prior to observing the dependent variable

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## Dependent variable

### a variable that is observed to assess the effect of the treatment

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## Control condition

### Individuals that do not receive experimental treatment. Instead, they receive no treatment or they receive a neutral, placebo treatment. Purpose is to provide a baseline for comparison with the experimental condition.

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## Control group

### The individuals in the control condition

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## Experimental condition

### Individuals in this group do receive the experimental treatment and called the experimental group

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## Quasi-independent variable

### In a non experimental study, the independent variable that used to create the different groups of scores

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## Constructs or hypothetical constructs

### Internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior

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## Operational definition

### Identifies a measurement procedure (set of operations) for measuring an external behavior and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and measurement of an internal construct.

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## Discrete variable

### Consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values exist between two neighboring categories

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## Continuous variable

### There are an infinite number of possible values that fall between any two observed values. Continuous variable is divisive into an infinite number of fractional parts.

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## Real limits

### The boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continues number line; the real limit see pertain two adjacent score is located exactly halfway between the scores. Each score has two real limits.

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## Upper real limit

### At the top of the interval

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## Lower real limit

### At the bottom of the interval

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## Nominal scale

### Consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measurements on a nominal scale label and categorize observations, but do not make any quantitative distinctions between observations.

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## Ordinal scale

### Consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence. Measurements on an ordinal scale rank observations in terms of size and magnitude.

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## Interval scale

### Consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. Equal differences between numbers on the scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured.

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## Ratio scale

### An interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero point. With a ratio scale, ratios of numbers do not reflect ratios of magnitude.

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##
€X^2

0

1

6

3

###
0^2= 0

1^2= 1

6^2= 36

3^2= 9

0+1+36+9= 46

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##
(€X)^2

0

1

6

3

###
0+1+6+3= 10

10^2 = 100

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##
€X +1

0

1

4

2

### 1+4+2=7 +1=8

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